Discuss two (2) common risk factors for polypharmacy. Give rationale for each identified risk factor. Discuss two interventions you can take as a Nurse Practitioner in your clinical practice to prevent polypharmacy and its complications.

PEER 1

Common Risk Factors for Polypharmacy

Multimorbidity

Multimorbodity refers to the co – occurrence of two or more chronic conditions. Individuals aged 70 years and above are most likely to suffer from chronic illnesses that come with old age. In regards to polypharmacy, research has shown that patients who have eight or more diagnosed diseases are at the highest risk for polypharmacy (Ersoy & Engin, 2018).

Frailty 

Frailty refers to a clinical syndrome especially in older adults that carries increased risk for decline in health and proper functioning of the body. Frailty predisposes older people to polypharmacy due to the multiple chronic illnesses they may be suffering from, thus the need for medication for each illness (Hovstadius & Petersson, 2016).

Nurses are better placed to identify the patients at risk for polypharmacy as well as to educate the patients and their families on risk reduction (Willie, 2019).In my clinical practice, I would employ strategies that would help the patients to manage their medications and prevent polypharmacy. For instance, I would discuss with the patients, the need for keeping an accurate list for all the medications they are taking including both over the counter and prescription. I would also advise them to record the medication names, the dosing frequency of the prescribed dosage and the reason for prescription.

In addition, I would advise the patients to identify and use one pharmacy which to obtain their medications which is important in ensuring that they get the correct dosage as well as reduce the possibility of adverse effects of drugs and interactions (Willie, 2019). Additionally, I would caution them on adhering to their medication in addition to ensuring that they take only the medicine that have been prescribed for them without sharing with others or saving them to use at a later date. I would also help the patients in the establishment of memory aids that would help them to remember to take their doses without fail.

PEER 2

Polypharmacy will be the usage of a number of different medications by an individual. It’s a typical act which is now practiced by the aged individuals but gets to generate much more damage than good. Polypharmacy is related with numerous unwanted effects on the patient. The risks include greater healthcare cost and increased danger of negative drug events, generally known to us ADEs (Duerden et al., 2013).

Increased healthcare costs: It’s been mentioned that polypharmacy is related elevated outpatient trips. This has hospitalization which results to increased healthcare price for the individuals. The medications which the individuals snap aren’t provided cost-free (Holmes, 2012). Consequently, they’ve to invest additional cash which they didn’t for to obtain the medications they would like. Thus, that raises the original quantity of expense that they had been using on drugs. The greater number of medications you decide to use, the greater number of cash you invest on medications.

Adverse drug events (ADE): Research done in 2005 proved that more than 4.3 million folks check out the healthcare because of problems of ADE. The majority of this particular cases are deemed to be from individuals that use much more five distinct kinds of medicines. Thus, the individual take more medicines believing that they will be helped by it, though they wind up heading to the hospital due to the medications they shoot that have been designed to assist them obtain perfectly (Holmes, 2012).

As a nurse practitioner pupil, I’d choose that aged individuals have being examined often. Doctors and nurses must recommend one medication to an individual rather than offering them a lot of medicines for only one problem (Duerden et al., 2013). One more thing is the fact that medication must be given to start from probably the lowest. For instance, a medication which may receive when one day really should be chosen with a drug which is provided 3 times one day.

To conclude, identifying polypharmacy is able to help to get much better results in the aged individuals consequently, can help enhance the lifetime of the individuals. To review the medicine of the individuals may additionally assist the aged individuals to stay away from the results of utilizing a variety of prescriptions (polypharmacy) (Duerden et al., 2013).
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–This the original homework if you needed:

  • Discuss two (2) common risk factors for polypharmacy. Give rationale for each identified risk factor.
  • Discuss two interventions you can take as a Nurse Practitioner in your clinical practice to prevent polypharmacy and its complications.
 
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What are the steps to using this method? Explain in detail. Provide an example of one study where it has been used. Summarize the study and how it used your group’s assigned research method.

. What are the functions that the liver, gallbladder and pancreas play in digestion? Explain.

2. Chapter 5 discusses many pathological conditions related to the digestive system and divides them based on their location (oral cavity, upper GI tract, Lower GI tract ect..). Pick 4 pathological conditions, one from each group, define them and explain the signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for each one.

3. You have learned so far the suffixes -tomy, -ectomy and -stomy. Explain the differences in the meanings of each suffix and illustrate using examples of medical terms that are realted to the digestive system.

4. This week, you are expected to go over the digestive system case study under the week’s module. In the case study, the patient (Mrs. Kreider) has undergone false diagnosis multiple times (indigestion, diverticulosis, jaundice, colonic polyps, etc…).

a. Describe each misdiagnosed condition, the reason behind each misdiagnosis and the lab tests and procedures that were used.

b. What was the actual diagnosis? What is the medical term for this condition? What was done to reach this diagnosis?

Groups: Three to four students will be randomly assigned to each group for the Week 5 Assignment 1:

  • Group 1 – Survey Research
  • Group 2 – Experimental Research
  • Group 3 – Correlational Research
  • Group 4 – Case Study
  • Group 5 – Phenomenology…………………………………………………I am Group 5
  • Group 6 – Ethnography
  • Group 7 – Grounded Theory
  • Group 8 – Focus Groups
  • Group 9 – Mixed Methods (exploratory or explanatory)

Please My group Is Group 5 …Phenomenology

 

Work with your group to finalize an eight to ten slide (length does not include the cover or references slides) PowerPoint presentation with references about your group’s assigned research method: Phenomenology

  • Description of the research method.
  • Describe whether it is qualitative or quantitative, or both, and why.
  • What are the steps to using this method? Explain in detail.
  • Provide an example of one study where it has been used. Summarize the study and how it used your group’s assigned research method.
  • Identification of challenges and limitations of this method.
 
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Discuss what factors determine the patient’s ability to give informed consent. Compose a sample informed consent form. .

Write a short (50-100-word) paragraph response for each question posed below. Submit this assignment as a Microsoft Word document.

  1. Define CAM.
  2. Describe the patient who uses CAM the most.
  3. List some common misconceptions about CAM.
  4. Identify methods of including the use of CAM in patient education.
  5. Discuss the safe use of CAM.
  6. List ways in which conventional medicine and CAM can be integrated.
  7. Define ethical theories, ethical principles, and values.
  8. Provide examples of ethical issues in patient education and compliance, and describe ways in which an effective professional/patient relationship and a poor health professional/patient relationship can impact these issues.
  9. Explain what is meant by “ethical patient education practices”.
  10. Explain the purpose of informed consent.
  11. Discuss what factors determine the patient’s ability to give informed consent.
  12. Compose a sample informed consent form. .
  13. Discuss the process of communication to use with the patient and the family when obtaining informed consent.

State Strategies:

The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize students with health reform strategies adopted by states.

Students will select a state health policy reform innovation and describe the rationale, how it was adopted (e.g., federal waivers, passage by the state legislature), the funding structure, and (to the extent statistical data are available) its impact.

Students should summarize their findings in a 1-2 page, single-spaced memo.

The sample memo attached.  A memo is required, see the attached sample.

A few examples of state innovations include Vermont’s single-payer system, Massachusetts’ health reforms and Kentucky’s Medicaid healthcare program (none of these can be used).

 
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Review the feedback from your instructor on the Topic 3 assignment, PICOT Statement Paper, and Topic 6 assignment, Literature Review. Use the feedback to make appropriate revisions to the portfolio components before submitting.

In this assignment, students will pull together the change proposal project components they have been working on throughout the course to create a proposal inclusive of sections for each content focus area in the course. At the conclusion of this project, the student will be able to apply evidence-based research steps and processes required as the foundation to address a clinically oriented problem or issue in future practice.

Students will develop a 1,250-1,500 word paper that includes the following information as it applies to the problem, issue, suggestion, initiative, or educational need profiled in the capstone change proposal:

  1. Background
  2. Problem statement
  3. Purpose of the change proposal
  4. PICOT
  5. Literature search strategy employed
  6. Evaluation of the literature
  7. Applicable change or nursing theory utilized
  8. Proposed implementation plan with outcome measures
  9. Identification of potential barriers to plan implementation, and a discussion of how these could be overcome
  10. Appendix section, if tables, graphs, surveys, educational materials, etc. are created

Review the feedback from your instructor on the Topic 3 assignment, PICOT Statement Paper, and Topic 6 assignment, Literature Review. Use the feedback to make appropriate revisions to the portfolio components before submitting.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

 
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