What are the main causes of environmental degradation in developing countries?

This one is due on 30th Nov.
Discussion 1: Special Instructions:
Must comply with all the writing requirements, including APA guidelines for proper citation and references, provided in the beginning of the class. For example: Please provide proper citations and reference list are required as part of the academic honesty and integrity, as guided by APA writing style. You also need to post comments to at least one person’s posting as part of your required response.

Select any two of the following 4 questions and post your brief but concise answers here. Also, please respond to at least one posting by another fellow student to complete your answer.
1. What are some of the differences between the population policies of China and India? What factors may have contributed to their success or failure?
Hints: Efforts in India, a functioning democracy (despite the authoritarian tendencies of Mrs. Gandhi in the 1970s), have meant that population control have come up against resistance. On the other hand, China’s ability (inherent in its political system) to enforce birth control policies has meant it has been more successful.  Ref: Todaro and Smith Text Ch. 6 and related articles
2. India’s population is expected to overtake that of China within the next decade. What differences between these two nations could have contributed to this outcome?
Hints: Similar to Q #3, but different approach. Ref Todaro and Smith textbook Ch. 6 and related articles
3. What are the characteristics of those who migrate to urban areas? What positive and negative effects does their leaving have on those who remain? Explain what is meant by urban bias. What are the major effects of urban bias?
Hints: Younger, better educated, and probably less risk-averse, given their willingness to migrate. These factors suggest they could be more entrepreneurial than average had they not migrated, which would benefit the rural area and help alleviate the urbanization problem.
Developing country policies that favor the urban sector with a disproportionate share of investments in infrastructure, factories, buildings, and education. This creates a widening gap in incomes and amenities between urban and rural economies and induces rural–urban migration. Ref. Todaro and Smith Textbook Ch. 7 and related articles
4. Discuss the importance of rural–urban migration as a source of urban population growth in various parts of the developing world, being as specific as you can. How did this migration process work for the rapid growth in China as compared to other comparable densely populated developing countries?
Hints: In Ch. 7 of Todaro and Smith book for the first part of the question. Also read Ch.4 case studies for the second part of this question and related articles
Also read Ch. 6 of Todaro and Smith textbook for population and econ Dev section.

This is due Dec.12th.
Discussion 2:

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Select any 2 of the following 4 Qs and post your responses here. Also post your responses/comments to at at least on of your class mates postings here by replying to his/her postings.
Please note: Your postings will not be acceptable for grading without proper citations and references guided by either APA writing style or MLA style. There will no make up for this discussion if not submitted properly with basic requirements.
1. Briefly describe concept of sustainable economic development in the context of developing countries.
Give a specific example of a country as part of your answer.
2. What are the main causes of environmental degradation in developing countries? Explain each of those causes and their effect on sustainable economic development
3. Critically describe the social and economic cost of deforestation and water pollution in developing countries. What is the role of the governments to mitigate those environmental costs? What developed countries can do in helping the governments of developing countries?
4. How will global warming and climate change adversely impact the “poor,” particularly in developing nations? Give a specific country example you have read about.
Fore reading references: You may either use the relevant references listed in the syllabus on this topic and/or use library e-journal sources.

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