The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying

. The school of behaviorism attempted to explain
behavior by studying

a) the reasons people give
for their behaviors.

b) the specific personality
traits that lead to behavior.

c) how a specific stimulus
evokes a specific response.

d) the purposes of people’s
behavior.

52. What advice might John B. Watson have offered to
psychologists of his time?

a)
“Focus on observable behavior.”

b)
“Life is an effort to overcome inferiority.”

c)
“We cannot know others until we know ourselves.”

d)
“Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.”

53. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered
that ________________.

a)
dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to habituation

b)
dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to reflexology

c)
dogs would salivate to the sound of a bell due to a learned reflexive response
called conditioning

d)
dogs would salivate to the sounds of a bell due to their fear response

54. Sallie noticed that when her alarm clock goes off
in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every
morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and
feeds Ruffles who very much enjoys his canned dog food. It is likely that
________________.

a) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to enjoy canned dog
food

b) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to sleep next
to her bed

c) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to
salivate over canned dog food

d) Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to
the sound of her alarm clock

55. Pavlov’s research demonstrated that
________________.

a) involuntary reaction (salivation) could occur in
response to an unrelated stimulus (sound of a bell)

b) an unrelated stimulus (salivation) could occur in
response to an involuntary reaction (sound of a bell)

c) involuntary reaction (sound of a bell) could occur in
response to an unrelated stimulus (food)

d) an unrelated stimulus (food) could occur in response
to an unrelated stimulus (barking)

56. Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas
Watson said phobias were __________.

a)
learned; inherited

b)
repressed conflicts; learned

c)
sexual; unconscious

d)
conditioned; unconditioned

57. Which pair of scientists shared the most similar
views of behavior?

a)
William James and Wilhelm Wundt

b)
B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer

c)
Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson

d)
Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener

58. Which founding contributors to psychology helped
develop behaviorism?

a) Gestalt and Wundt

b) Freud and Watson

c) Watson and Pavlov

d) Pavlov and Wundt

 
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