Objective 1.10– How are operational
definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control
groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment?
151. An operational
definition is ___________________.
a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies
relationships among variables that can be empirically tested
an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a
specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of
behavior, that researchers want to measure
the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific
enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation
152. As part of a
psychology experiment, Brett decides to measure a person’s “anxiety” by noting
the number of blinks a person makes in a twenty minute social interaction with
a stranger. Brett appears to have offered a(n) ________ of anxiety.
153. The steps or procedures an experimenter must use
to control or measure the
variables in a study is called the ________________.
154. Marcy is trying to
define anxiety in a way that can be
empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate
155. Adaris has always been
drawn to the saying “Absence makes the heart grow fonder,” and she decides to
incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically
tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________________.
156. The administration of Midwest State University
wants to know if arrangement of chairs
affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational
definition of the dependent variable in an experiment designed to measure this
class size: under 50 or over 50
number of students enrolled in each class
chair arrangement: theater style or circular
frequency with which students ask questions
157. What is one of the major reasons that
psychologists use operational definitions?
to comply with legal requirements
to identify all the extraneous variables
so that effects can be measured
to explain research results so that nonpsychologists can understand
158. A researcher is investigating the effects of
exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this
The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.
The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories
The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is
159. In order to increase typing speed Minisoft has
redesigned its keyboard and provided a chime that is related to typing speed.
The company wants to know if its innovations affect typing speed. Identify the
independent and dependent variables in this proposed study.
The dependent variable is the chime; the independent variables are the chime
and typing speed.
The dependent variable is speed of typing; the independent variables are the
keyboard design and the
dependent variable is keyboard design; the independent variables are the speed
of typing and the
dependent variable is the number of errors made; the independent variables are
the chime and the
variable that the experimenter manipulates is called a(n) _____________.
a) coefficient of correlation
b) dependent variable
c) control condition
d) independent variable