Hi, need to submit a 2000 words paper on the topic Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy. Following different energies dissipated by different sources, calibration of the NaI (Tl) detector can easily be processed. As is seen, when a 60Co source is placed close to a NaI (Tl) detector, an additional peak spectrum is observed. Moreover, this procedure helps determine the efficiency and resolution of the NaI (Tl) detector. The present experiment sought to investigate the dependency of the photomultiplier tube of the NaI(Tl) detector alongside the high voltage supply that clearly showed a voltage requirement that needs to be stabilized and also demonstrated a strong dependency on the applied voltage. Basing on the radioactive sources, the NaI (Tl) detector’s resolution was found to range between 15.06% and 21.97%. However, this is not the appropriate value relative to the correct value obtained from Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGE). Using 22Na, 60Co, 137Cs, and 152Eu as radioactive sources, the calculation for three efficiencies was done in this experiment. These were intrinsic total efficiency (ɛi) found to be 22Na=50.49%, 60Co=44.8%, 137Cs=17.4% and 152Eu=45.66%, absolute total efficiency (ɛt) found to be 22Na=5.97, 60Co=5.3%, 137Cs=2.06%, and 152Eu=5.4%, the intrinsic photopeak efficiency (ɛp) is found to be 60Co=44.8% and 137Cs= 17.4%. These values indicate the NaI(Tl) detector’s efficiency in detecting gamma radiation from radioactive material. The dependency of the system on voltage has also been demonstrated.
Of all the waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays have the smallest wavelength and the highest energy (NASA 2007). Gamma rays, like X-rays, are a type of electromagnetic radiation. These rays result from nuclear interaction (Gilmore & Hemingway, 1995). Gamma rays are released from radioactive atoms and also in atomic explosions (NASA 2007). Figure 1 shows the gamma-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum in comparison with other waves.
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As described, gamma radiation is high energy and short wavelength radiation which can penetrate very deeply. Due to this reason, this radiation can lead to severe damage when it penetrates living cells. A sodium iodide detector (NaI (Tl)) can be used to detect gamma radiation. The high value of the atomic number (Z) of iodine present in NaI results in increased efficiency of gamma-ray detection (Manus 2009). The addition of thallium through doping results in the activation of the NaI crystal.