## Review the video in the Learning Resources, in which Dr. Matt Jones explains how to harness the power of Excel using contingency tables.

In the prerequisite course, Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis, you constructed basic contingency (crosstab) tables. You might be surprised to learn that you can estimate a simple logistic regression model, with a categorical predictor, using the descriptive values presented in the crosstab table.

In this assignment, you use Microsoft Excel to construct a specialized tool that creates basic logistic regression models given a crosstab/contingency table. As if that were not useful enough, this Excel tool is not specialized—you can use it given any crosstab/contingency tables you encounter in research. In the field of statistical research, this is just about as exciting as you can get!

To prepare

• Review the sections in the Osborne text that present a template for constructing an Excel worksheet.
• Review the video in the Learning Resources, in which Dr. Matt Jones explains how to harness the power of Excel using contingency tables.
• Think about the types of variables that are useful for cross tab tables.

Using one of the datasets provided, select two variables that allow you to construct a 2×2 contingency table. Use SPSS to run the initial crosstab table, using any two variables that you think are appropriate. Then, use Excel to construct a table in which you report:

• Conditional probabilities
• Conditional odds
• Logits
• Odds ratios
• Relative risk
• Slope

Be sure to apply the template from the Osborne text. Note that page 42 has a completed example that should help you determine these values. Be sure to use formulas and cell references in Excel so that the spreadsheet you create can be used as a tool for calculating similar values for other datasets.

Once you have created the tool, write a 1- to 2-paragraph summary in APA format interpreting your results. Submit both your Excel file and your summary to complete this assignment.

## Discuss and provide original examples from your own life, of each of the following three sources of high need for achievement:  its socialization influences, its cognitive influences, or its developmental influences.

Assignment 5

Essays Part I:Your writing should illustrate knowledge of the concepts through an original personal and/or professional integration of the assigned text material. All assignments MUST be typed, double-spaced, in APA style, and must be written at graduate level English. The content, conciseness, and clarity of your answers will be considered in the evaluation of your work. These answers should be ½ – 1 page per question. You must integrate the material presented in the text and cite your work according to APA format.1. Motivation arises from both internal motives (i.e., needs, cognitions, emotions) and external events (i.e., incentives, consequences, social contexts).  Is one of these sources of motivation more potent or more effective in motivating people than is the other?  Are people primarily motivated by internal motives or by external events, or are people motivated about equally by internal motives and external events? Justify your response by giving examples from your own life.
2. Selecting one physiological need (e.g., hunger, thirst, sex) as an example, explain, how the biological beginnings of this need eventually manifest themselves as a psychological drive in a person’s subjective awareness.  In other words, explain how a biological event becomes a psychological motive. Give an original example to support your explanation.
3. How does self-determination theory explain how external events (e.g., rewards, praise) sometimes produce positive effects on motivation but other times produce negative effects? Give an original example to support your explanation.
4.  Learned helplessness theory relies on the components of contingency, cognition, and behavior to explain the motivational dynamics underlying helplessness.  Explain what these three components mean and provide an original illustrative example of each.
5.  Consider the origins of the need for achievement. Discuss and provide original examples from your own life, of each of the following three sources of high need for achievement:  its socialization influences, its cognitive influences, or its developmental influences.
6.  Differentiate the motivational and performance-based advantages versus disadvantages for performers who adopt a short-term goal (e.g., eat less than 2000 calories today) versus performers who adopt a long-term goal (e.g.,. lose 20 pounds this year) and offer a recommendation as to whether performers should adopt a short-term or a long-term goal. Explain/justify your recommendation.
Assignment Outcomes:

Correlate the relationship of cognition, emotion and motivation

Appraise critical research findings of contemporary studies

Analyze the brain and empirical evidence of human behavior

Consider the cognitive process of learned helplessness, anxiety, depression and emotional suffering

Discriminate neuropsychological and sociocultural factors of motivation and emotion

## Describe your friend’s human experience with the disorder. How does it manifest itself in their life? What effects does it have on their life? 25 points

The assignemnt is:

Using information from your text, videos, and learning activities (and your own thoughts) addressing the following scenario in words (4-5 pages): IMAGINE THAT your best friend comes to you for an informal opinion about some unusual symptoms he/she has been experiencing. Choose a disorder for him/her to experience that we have covered in the course. Describe the symptoms of the disorder and the treatment advice you believe is most valid, including the theoretical model. Better papers will include a thorough description of (a) relevant diagnostic criteria, (b) your friend’s human experience with the disorder, (c) the theoretical model recommended (the one you think is best and why – e.g., cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, biological, a combination of models you think are appropriate), and (d) a reflection of your changing views of mental health function and dysfunction as a result of what you have learned in the course. Grading criteria for this option are as follows:

Describe your friend’s human experience with the disorder. How does it manifest itself in their life? What effects does it have on their life? 25 points

Incorporate the relevant diagnostic criteria of the particular disorder chosen and be sure to tie it into the friend’s personal experience you describe. 25 points

Treatment advice you would suggest to your friend and the theoretical model that is tied to this treatment. Why do you think this is the best treatment/model? 20 points

Reflect on your changing views of mental health function and dysfunction as a result of course material. Have your views changed or not? What has changed and why? 20 points

The paper should be typed, double-spaced and 4-5 pages in length. 5 points

Structure (flow of paper; 5 points) and Mechanics (spelling, grammar, etc) 5 points}

I chose (EATING DISORDER) to be the topic for this paper.

And here is the chapter for this topic

The deadline for this paper is Aug 3.

## evaluate how a research study can be grounded in the literature, Babbie (2017) advances a plan for considering theoretical orientation, research design, measurement, sampling, experiments, survey or field research, content analysis, and others.

As researchers use scholarly literature for both theory testing and theory building, they concentrate on the sources within their area of research. First, they determine what has been studied but has limits and further perspectives. Information about the limits and further research perspectives helps the researcher understand what gaps exist and how the angle of perception can be further developed or even changed. From literature review, the researcher conceptualizes the area of research and identifies key concepts used by other researcher in similar studies. From repeated references to certain sources, the researcher identifies seminal work in a selected area of interest (Babbie, 2017). The research conducted by Stedman-Smith, DuBois, and Grey (2015) tested the theory of planned behavior. The researchers’ theoretical orientation was to model planned behavior related to hand hygiene practices in the workplace. The theoretical orientation shaped the methodology as hand hygiene practices were constructed as predicted planned behavior. The study was motivated by the possibility of predicting planned hygiene practices. Appropriateness of the model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Using the Litmus test as guide, it is possible to note that the reviewed article states that there is a problem in reducing employee absenteeism caused by infectious disease. This study that investigates planned behavior in the workplace by descriptive statistical method of structural equation modeling could remedy the situation in similar workplace settings. The researchers give evidence that the problem is significant, for contaminated hands in all age groups are transmitters of gastrointestinal infections. They articulate the problem within the context of planned behavior theoretical framework grounded in the WHO and CDC strategic recommendations to develop effective interventions capable of reducing gastrointestinal infections related to hand hygiene. They reflect on a meaningful gap in practice utilizing the theory of planned behavior that can effectively address the planned workplace hand hygiene intervention. The purpose and design of the study called for a quantitative analysis. The researchers used their own pilot study of the bank employees whose little sample size prevented them from generalizability.

To evaluate how a research study can be grounded in the literature, Babbie (2017) advances a plan for considering theoretical orientation, research design, measurement, sampling, experiments, survey or field research, content analysis, and others. For example, the researcher who evaluates theoretical orientation needs to determine a theoretical aspect to the study with corresponding references, the author’s theoretical orientation, what is tested (hypothesis or theory), how the theoretical orientation shapes the method, and how the selected method is appropriate. The typical mistake is to consider one’s work unique without viewing it as a reflection on an existing gap (Brown, 2013, Walden University Writing Center, 2014).

The study was motivated by the possibility of predicting planned hygiene practices. First, their area of interest was justified by high costs of absenteeism and resulted lost productivity in a workplace across the United States. Second, they focused on the relationship between hand hygiene and gastrointestinal infections. Third, they tested the theory of planned behavior a the one to help developing hand hygiene beliefs and activities. The researchers hypothesized that construct validity could be generalized estimating how beliefs would predict hand hygiene beliefs and their influences on developing hand hygiene infections during a month. This study filled the gap in doing research on community hand hygiene improvement interventions among office workers and, specifically, in University settings. The researchers contributed to the study of planned behavior by finding no gender difference in hand hygiene practices. From their findings, parents have better hand hygiene practices than others. The gap between the age, degree, and hand hygiene motivation remains a gap that needs further research. The weaknesses of this study include reliance solely on self-reported information.

References

Babbie, E. (2017). Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.