Describe the each of the works briefly, focusing on important details with respect to elements of art and principles of design employed in their creation or production.

Formal Analysis of Art of the Americas:


Tattooed warrior with war club, Nukahiva, Marquesas Islands


  • Context:  Situate the artwork you have selected within the genre of art or type of art object to which it belongs or under which it is are best categorized. Give historical background for the object, situating it within the historical, social and/or religious context.
  • Formal Analysis:  Describe the particular elements of the selected work and explain how they function to communicate a particular meaning, convey a cultural message or theme, or express a specific emotion, feeling, or attitude.
  • Interpretation:  Move beyond description in your analysis to your interpretation of the meaning and overall aesthetic affect of the work of art.


QUESTION 2:  300 words


Comparison Essay


Compare:   Waist pendant of a Queen Mother, from Benin Nigeria ca. 1520   – vs –


Ngady Amwaash mask, Kuba Democracti Republic of Congo late 19th century


Comparison thesis statement: Begin your response with your comparison statement.  Explain in one declarative statement what is the thread tying your two images together.  What conclusion can you draw from what you observe or interpret about the works in question based on comparing and contrasting them?


  • Description: Describe the each of the works briefly, focusing on important details with respect to elements of art and principles of design employed in their creation or production.
  • Evidence:  Provide supporting evidence for your comparative thesis through discussing and explaining the various similarities and differences you find in the objects. These similarities and differences might be in terms of the stylistic or formal qualities, the media or materials used, the purpose or function of the artwork or artifact, the historical era of origin, the cultural or political context in which the work was produced, and so on.
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Describe a situation in which the style of Impressionism might best be used in art and/or design today?

Art criticism is the process of gathering facts and information about a work of art and the artist to describe, analyze, interpret, and evaluate art. For this assignment, you will chose one work of art from the following artists to critique.

Choose a work from the following artists:

  • Mary Cassatt
  • Paul Cezanne
  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir
  • Claude Monet
  • Edgar Degas

Complete the following:

  • Identify the artist, the title of the artwork, and the date it was completed in the first paragraph.
  • Paste an image of the painting in your paper. Examples of each of these artists can be found in the textbook. (The images in the textbook are copyright-protected and cannot be copied. To find the exact painting, search the Internet by the artist’s name and the title of the work. Right-click and copy the image. Open a Word document and right-click and paste. If the image does not paste into your paper, try another image. Sometimes images are protected and cannot be copied. Wherever you do find the image, make sure to cite your source in APA style. If you are unsure how to cite an image, this resource can help you.)
  • Use the four steps to critiquing art that are found in Chapter 10 of Embracing Art to develop a critique of the work. Be sure that you write a well-developed paragraph on each of the four areas indicating specific areas in the painting in your explanation:
    • Description
    • Analysis
    • Interpretation
    • Evaluation
  • Can art be “aesthetically pleasing” even if it isn’t beautiful?
  • How would the viewer respond to the work at the time it was created?

Part 2

Using a camera or cell phone, take 3 photographs from your immediate environment that exemplify each of the following styles of art (be creative!):

  • Realism
  • Impressionism
  • Post-Impressionism

You can manipulate your photographs with any software effects to achieve the appropriate results. For example, you can take a photo of a friend or family member, and using software, blur the image to represent impressionism.

Include your 3 original photographs in your paper. (Save the photos to your desktop. If you use your phone camera, you can e-mail them to yourself. Open the image and right-click and copy. Open a Word document and right-click and paste.)

Answer the following questions in paragraph style:

  • Number each photo and identify the style it closely resembles. Explain the characteristics of each style that you tried to emulate.
  • What style of art would best be used to communicate a direct message? Explain
  • What style of art would evoke an emotional response? Explain.
  • Identify 3 examples of Realism in art or design that you see on a daily basis.
  • Describe a situation in which the style of Impressionism might best be used in art and/or design today?

In-text citations and a list of references are required when including or paraphrasing any idea, fact, date, or other information from the textbook or other references.

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 Describe what you learned about art in general.   Describe what you learned about the art criticism theory.


  1. Art Appreciation Gallery: CritiqueFor the last segment of your Art Appreciation Gallery Course Project, you will be adding a comprehensive statement to your PowerPoint presentation and finalizing your segments from the previous units. You will submit the entire presentation, including those portions from previous units, for a final grade.


    In your comprehensive statement, present the last words on your Art Appreciation Gallery. Summarize your thoughts and convey the larger implications of your Art Appreciation Gallery. This is an opportunity to succinctly answer the so what question by placing the presentation within the context of research about the topic you have investigated. Be sure to demonstrate the importance of your ideas. Do not be shy. The comprehensive statement offers you a chance to elaborate on the significance of your findings.

    For this segment, use the slides in the presentation template labeled “Comprehensive Statement.” A minimum of three PowerPoint slides are required; however, you are welcome to add as many as you feel you need. You may include more than one idea on each slide, but please do not overload the slides with information.


    Be sure to address the following in your comprehensive statement:

    •   Describe what you learned about art in general.
    •   Describe what you learned about the art criticism theory.
    •   Describe what you learned about art’s role in society.
    •   Citations and references are not a requirement for this section, but if you choose to use outside sources, theymust be cited and referenced accordingly
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Disadvantages of the built-in lighting are mass production, an extreme minimalist style that does not suit many interior designs.

Luminescent light fixtures

The act of proper lighting in the home is an essential aspect that cannot be underestimated.  The type and the placement of the lighting provide the elegance attribute to the interior space in the home.

In the past luminescent lights was characterized by the big size of the fixtures, cold blue luminescence, scintillation and wicked humming which made them not ideal for homes.  Contrary to the past perception where luminescent lights were only used at industries, in offices and business premises, the concept has been re-modified and enhanced and decorative attribute added to the lamps to be fully compatible with the home setups.

The advancement of the assembly of luminescent light has incorporated the compact size fixtures of different colors and original designs as the market request. The lights have also found a well-deserved place in the loft lighting style.

Design and working principle

Luminescent light fixture LPO-106 Т8.G13 IP20 ASD

The main feature and advantage of luminescent lights are the use of luminescent energy-saving lamps. They are installed with special lamp-holders (sockets). Wiring is connected to the sockets with bronze clamps.

Luminescent lamps are in fact glass tubes with both ends sealed off. The tube is filled with argon gas, and they also contain mercury. Besides the tube walls are covered with a layer of luminophor.

When power is supplied, an arc discharge is emitted between electrodes on the opposite ends of the tube. The electric discharge causes luminescence in ultraviolet light. Similarly, this luminescence is absorbed by the luminophor and is converted into visible light perceived by the human eye. The emission colour by the luminescence depends on the luminophor composition.

The main components of the luminescence light include the lamps which offer the casing, reflector, and diffuser (or lattice). The diffuser may be reflex or white mortar. The fixtures of the lights can be commerce using two main mechanisms open lights or the one that have globes.

However it is important to note that the casing and the lamp are not enough, for proper functioning, the fixture needs an individual electronic control gear. Notably, the use of electronic equipment has been modernized from the electro-magnetic gear to new advanced gear that deals with the deficiencies that were prevalent in the old versions that were characterized by noise and they were big in size. Modern light fixtures do not have such shortcomings. They are equipped with electronic control gears (ECG).

Digital electronic control gears (ECGs) make it possible to implement the most original lighting designs fit for the “Smart Home” regarding power-efficient systems.

Wide variety of fluorescent lamps

Types of fluorescent lamps

Fluorescent lights can be either ceiling- or wall-fitted. Ceiling lamps are further classified into surface-mounted, built-in and pendant. Surface mounted lights are fixed to the ceiling. Built-in lights are used on dropped ceiling. Pendant lights are perfect for spot lighting.

Fluorescent lamps can have one, two or more bulbs. In most cases the bulbs are linear fluorescent tubes. The following linear tubes are most commonly used:

T4 (12.7 mm in diameter)

T4 and T5 tubes have a G5 base; the T8 tube has the G13 base. Numbers in base designation indicate the distance between base pins in millimetres. Irrespective of the lamp type and manufacturer the lamp size (length) depends on its power.

Depending on the light diffuser, lamps can produce direct, diffused and reflected light.

Fluorescent lamps can be water and dust proof. The level of protection is classified in agreement with IP system (Ingress Protection coded system). The higher the IP, the better a lamp is protected against moisture and dust.

Light-flux spectrum is determined by the radiation temperature. As the radiation temperature goes up, so does the light spectrum change from red to blue.

Range of use

Ceiling-fitted fluorescent lamps.

The primary light source in any house is ceiling lamps. Surface-mounted lamps would suit the best low ceilings in storage rooms, halls, and bathrooms. Built-in fluorescent lamps are recommended for rooms with higher ceilings. Fluorescent lamps can be fitted along the perimeter of the chamber to create concealed lighting. The important fact is that modular system is used for this purpose.

Multilevel ceiling sheds and mouldings are design structures that require special lighting to provide the magnificent look. Fluorescent lamps can be employed together with LED lights on the kitchen cabinets to lighten certain surfaces and areas. While miniature lamps can be installed in the furniture for spot lighting. For lighting, the mirrors, pictures and the posters the use of wall mounted lamps are the ideal preference.

Select linear lights are used for plants and in aquariums.

Red and blue spectrum regions are their main feature. Such light is very useful for plants. It makes up for the lack of sunlight and stimulates photo-biological functions in plants.

Advantages and disadvantages

Lamps with Feron 3020TL fluorescent bulb

The key benefit of fluorescent lamps is energy saving. Also, they are five times more efficient than incandescent electric lights but come second after LED lamps.

Time alight varies from 5 to 12 thousand hours. Therefore, fluorescent lamps are particularly useful for hard-to-reach areas.

Fluorescent lamps radiate light over the entire surface of the bulbs. This effect is attributed to different light shades that are available due to the variety of colours of the light flux.

Use of electronic ballasts which replaced electromagnetic traditional ones significantly improved performance of the fluorescent lamps reducing their twinkling and eliminating the buzzing noise.

Major disadvantage of the fluorescent lamps is the use of mercury which requires special and careful handling.

Another disadvantage is the dependency of the fluorescent lamps on the exterior temperature. Extremely low and high temperatures affect the light power. Although it is irrelevant when fluorescent lamps are used for living spaces, their sensitivity to frequent turn-on and offs might cause some inconvenience in some environments. It is therefore recommended not to use fluorescent lamps where the light to be constantly turned on and off.

Potential failures and rectification

Fluorescent lamp Armstrong

Fluorescent lamps are robust and reliable. However on rare occasions, failures can be caused by problems with bulbs, ballasts, and electric wires. Another failure can be associated with the lamp holder.

Let’s deal with possible failures one by one:

Orange colour glimmering at the lamp ends which is caused air in the tube. This failure cannot be fixed. Thus, the faulty tube shall be replaced.

After being turned on the lamp goes dim and then completely off which is caused by ballast failure. Rectification requires the faulty ballast to be replaced.

The lamp occasionally goes off, after which it turns itself on again. This failure is scenario is caused by the starter or the lamp.

Blinking light is a common failure which affects light only from one side of the tube. This emanates from short circuit failure in the ballast or the wiring.

When turned on, the tube end changes colour to black. Cause – supply voltage and lamp voltage are not compatible or failure in ballast resistance. If the voltage is checked and consistent, the ballast resistor shall be replaced.

The lamp doesn’t turn on. Mainly caused by broken wire or electrodes also failure or problem with the power supply may cause the lamps not to activate.

Manufacturers and models

Which manufacturer to prefer when choosing your fluorescent light? Current market offers an enormous variety of well-known brands to cheap low-quality copies.


SLV is a German manufacturer of the fluorescent lamps and one of the leaders in the European market. Dealers are available in any part of the world. Innovative technology, good price, and design these are attributes that makes SLV products appealing to buyers.

Kuno pendant fluorescent lights have the modern design. Pendant length can be adjusted and drops down to 1.5 meters. The light is sold without the base. Tron base with cable fixing and the light itself are supplied separately.


Another well-known brand is Novotech, Hungarian manufacturer of fluorescent lamps. The company uses modern lighting technologies with particular focus on energy-saving fluorescent and halogen lamps.

SIDE series lights are presented in the table. There are covered lights with a switch. Primary use – lighting of the furniture (for example kitchen surfaces).


Fluorescent lights produced by Slovak company OMS are widely used in Europe. The manufacturer is well presented in all market segments providing from budget to premium class fluorescent lamps owing to modern manufacturing technologies.

OMS pendant lights will satisfy the most exquisite taste.

Nearly all European lighting producers have something to offer if you are looking for fluorescent lamps. Efficiency, long life, various light shades of the fluorescent lights make them suitable for any interior design.

Mirror lights


Types of mirror lights

•    Construction

•    Lights location

•    Advantages and disadvantages

•    Operation and safety precautions

•    Manufacturers and models


Mirror lights are specially designed to illuminate person’s face looking in the mirror.

Mirror lights produce even light with minimum shadow casting. Mirror lights should be bright but shouldn’t dazzle the eyes. For this reason, many of them have frosted diffusers.

Mirror lights are not to be confused with lights used for illuminations of pictures. The main difference is that picture lights are directed not in the face of the person looking at the picture but in the opposite direction. They produce large and even light spot focused on the picture itself.

Another difference is the mounting method. Mirror lights are fixed to the mirror frame or special slots in the mirror. Picture lights, on the contrary, are mounted above or next to the picture and attached to the wall. Some well-known brands of lights have moisture protection.

Wall-mounted mirror lights shall be chosen carefully. They should be practical and at the same time add to and personalize the interior.

Types of mirror lights

Kutek mirror light

Wall lights are ideal for classical and modern style bathrooms, halls and living rooms. They are produced in great variety of forms, shapes and sizes;

Mirrors with built-in lights provide soft and sufficient illumination. It is particularly effective if you want to lighten the mirror area but there’s no need for bright light (see Built-in lights);

LED module lamps (spotlights, sold individually) are perfect for bathrooms and bedrooms. LED lights are practical and functional;

LED strip light can be used for illumination of the stairs, pictures, raised floor and mirrors. It is easy-to-fix. All you need to is to measure the required length, cut the strip, connect to power supply and attach to the surface with adhesive side;

Fluorescent lights are fitted in bathrooms, nurseries, and studies. They produce diffused light and don’t dazzle the eyes (see Fluorescent lamps).


Mirror light Astro 0814 Kashima

Wall lamps are made of aluminum, glass, and metal. They are placed on each side of the mirror and mounted by brackets to the mirror frame or the wall.

Built-in mirror lights can be either internal or external. Lights can be located all around the mirror or just along the sides. Mirrors with internal lights are produced in various shapes and sizes which make it easy to choose one suitable for your interior style.

LED strip lights are very safe when fitted into the aluminum frame. The frame itself can serve as a feature and make the illuminated object look complete.

Built-in and wall-mounted lights are extremely practical which makes them suitable for both general and spot lighting either in living or public spaces. They are commonly used in halls to the illuminated area near the mirror and the bathrooms.

Light location

Mirror light Massive

Light location shall be picked based on the intended purpose:

Front illumination is paramount for personal hygiene activities, shaving, hair styling and make-up, for the best effect the following should be put into consideration;

Light above the mirror saves a lot of space;

Side lighting produces more natural illumination

Bright illumination of the mirror can help to avoid straining your eyes to see the reflection;

When choosing and mounting a mirror it is important to make sure that light does not dazzle your eyes but provide sufficient illumination of the intended area.

Mirror lights Cabaret

Light locations for mirrors of different shapes and sizes:

A pair of wall lights is perfect for small mirrors. They look better when positioned symmetric about the mirror frame. Two lights allow illuminating a face and eliminate shadow-casting from either side.

To illuminate a full mirror in the room, it is advisable to use several lights placed about two meters above the floor level. Either wall-mounted or pendant lights would be appropriate in this case (see Ceiling lights).

For a medium-size mirror, multiple lights all around it will be the most efficient way to illumination. Fluorescent energy-saving lights shall be placed right above the mirror.

For the medium-sized mirror of round and oval shape, it is recommended to use LED lights.

If a mirror is in the wall niche, it is better to use accent lighting. If diffused lighting is your choice, then opt for lights with white covers. For the small make-up mirror, the light shall be directed towards the mirror surface.

Avoid bulky items as they cast large shadows.

Advantages and disadvantages

Built-in mirror lighting

Benefits of a wall-mounted light:


Ergonomic design which fits in perfectly with classic interior styles;

Can be mounted vertically or horizontally;


Easy maintenance;

Can be combined with built-in lights

Advantages of LED lighting:

Available as ready-made items with built-in lights;

Reduces electricity costs as they save more energy than incandescent lamps, energy-saving, and halogen lamps;

Less powerful, but provide sufficient illumination compared to standard lamps;

Long life;

Tolerate temperature jumps;

Can be fitted with colored lights;

Easy to mount and maintain;

Ready-to-use design solution

Disadvantages of the built-in lighting are mass production, an extreme minimalist style that does not suit many interior designs.


Operation and safety precautions

Mirror lights Electro standard Grande

To securely mount the lights the following rules should be taken into considerations:

Concealed electric wiring shall be planned in advance;

Fire worthiness and safety requirement shall be observed;

Cannot be fitted near water holding;

The light location should be picked to complement the interior design.

Manufacturers and models

When it comes to choosing a wall-mounted light, give preference to well-known European brands: Wunderlich, Ecola, Maytoni, Paulmann, Оdeon Light, ArteLamp, Lussole, Favourite. They are suitable for halls, bedrooms, bathrooms, and studies.

The high quality of the products and fair name of the manufacturer guarantee that the light will serve you for long years to come. Additionally you will be spoilt for choice from minimalist loft-style lights to sophisticated, expensive moldings.

German lights by Paulmann will surprise you by their shapes and unique styles. Out-of-the-box light designs of this brand will make any interior look one and only.

The first model is built in contemporary style. It has an ergonomic design and will complement the high-tech interior. The light was specially designed for illuminations of mirrors.

The second model is made in classical style. It will best suit elegant interiors. The lighting is bright and diffused. With this light, your room will look classy and ergonomic.

The third model is made in minimalist style. It incorporates flowing lines, ergonomics and flexibility in use.

Italian company Odeo Light produces lights that are well-known for their highest quality all around the world. The price range is as wide as the product line. You will find lights in classic and contemporary designs that would complement your living room, nursery or bedroom.

Odeon Light is a time-honored brand. It is highly rated in the European lighting market. If you want the high-quality product, go for Odeon Light.

Izar 2448/2 has the frosted finish and provides spotlight which doesn’t dazzle the eyes but produces glimpse illumination.

Odeon Light Izar 2447/1 has plain design and can be fitted next to or by each side a mirror. This model is ideal if you are looking for the stylish light that provides sufficient illumination and doesn’t take a lot of space.

Oden Light Izar 2449/1 is mounted to a mirror. It is compact and is perfect for bathrooms. It fits any interior styles.

On this page, we introduced you to the types of lights, their advantages, and disadvantages, safety precautions to be observed when fitting the lights and possible locations of the lights. We identified the concept of functional wall light and demonstrated the importance of light in the interior.

Each and every light has specific parameters and features. When making the choice pay attention to the following: will it help to save energy, will it be functional enough for the intended use, does it have an ergonomic design and will it provide sufficient illumination.


Loft style lights



Design Peculiarities




Operation and safety precautions

Manufacturers and models

Loft style light: Loft Industry Factory White D33

Minimalist and bare loft style are in trend with more and more apartments and cottage houses decorated up to its urban look. Spacious rooms, the minimum of details and décor, metal and concrete in abundance – these are the key features of the industrial style.

Lighting for such interior shall be thought through carefully selected. It takes a lot of thoroughly picked and positioned lights to make this gray and bare space look livable and cozy.

Loft style lights were specifically designed for this type of interior.

Loft style lights normally have one or more geometrically shaped lamp shades or diffusers made of metal and glass.

Loft style lights can be ceiling-mounted, pendants and wall-fitted. They are produced in sober colours and can be used either for spot illumination or general lighting of the room.


Types of loft style lights

By their construction and fitting Loft style lights can be:

Ceiling-mounted (pendant); or


Pendant lights then further classified into:

Chain or cord pendants;

cable (string) or track (rail) style pendants.

The first group is traditional lights with the metal base attached to the ceiling with one or several lamp shades hanging down the chain or the cord. Some models are made using just an oversized bare bulb.

Cable or track models consist of bearing support and lights can be fitted anywhere on the support.

Their construction and structural rigidity differ. Previously such lighting was used only in commercial facilities and offices. Now they are becoming more widely used in contemporary living spaces (see Track lights).

They are ideal urban elements to bring industrial style into your home.


Loft style light: LSP-9191 Lussole

A wall light has a metal frame that is fixed to the wall. The lamp can be either stationary or turning.

By the type of bulb used the lights are classified into:

With the incandescent lamp, Edison lamp as the most commonly used;

With halogen lamps;

With fluorescent lamps (energy-saving);


To impart a sense of industrial style, choose cold white light. Therefore, LED and fluorescent lights are preferable. Besides they consume less energy, have high light efficiency and a long time to light up than their counterparts.

Design Peculiarities

Ceiling light Loft Cart

A traditional pendant and wall light consist of fittings, a lampshade, electric wiring, a holder and a bulb (see Chandeliers).

Loft style has distinguished minimal décor and shows no sign of fussy embellishments. Simple but well-though-out forms and shapes represent the industrial style.

Fittings are made of metal while lampshades and diffusers – of thick glass, metal, rough wood, plastic, ceramics, and stone. Some models have no lampshades.

Cable lighting systems contain a particular set of elements:

Cables / strings

Two cables are strung up from one wall to the opposite one, parallel to the ceiling, with 3-20 cm between the cables.

In this case Lights are fitted in between the cables in plain or hung to the cables with the help of individual flexible suspensions.

Step-down transformer that supplies power to low-voltage systems (12, 24U), for other systems with 220U voltage transformer is not needed in this situation.

In contrast to cable systems, track lighting systems are rigid and do not require pulling up.

The track is used instead of wire. It represents a system of aluminium, copper and other rails encased in a protective metal sheath and used for power transportation and distribution.

Power contacts of the lights fitted to the track system are connected to the lighting tracks.


Loft style lights

The primary purpose of Loft style lights is to provide spot illumination of a particular space.

For general lighting, bright illumination of the whole living space can be achieved when a combination of several lights is used.

For space zoning, Loft interiors are large and spacious. They require well-planned zoning. Pendants can be of great help in this case. They will transform the space and make it inviting, comfortable and profound through the introduction of designer details  and the creation of a homely and cosy atmosphere.


Ceiling light Loft Play

The key advantage pendants and lighting systems are that you can adjust them to any height needed.

Light models are stylish and unique.

They may look simple, but a lot of designer talent and thinking were put into them. Such lights are not meant to be the centre of attention, but they complement the style of the interior.

You can put Loft style lights in different areas of the room and turn on only those where you need light, thus saving energy. If there’s only one big light that provides general illumination for the whole room, it will not be energy efficient. Loft style lights are simple and made of durable materials. Furthermore they are resistant to mechanical damage, easy to clean in contrast to chandeliers with crystals or fabric lampshades. The lighting systems are as well highly flexible and portable.


Ceiling light Lussole Loft LSP-9327

The following can be considered as disadvantages of Loft style lamps:

Limitation usability due to design specifics makes the usage of the lights only suitable for the industrial style.

Loft style lights are recommended for spacious rooms with considerable ceiling height (more than 2.5 meters). They will look out of place in small rooms. For cable systems, the ceiling height should be 3 meters or more.

Operation and safety precautions

Loft style light Feuerball3 C2 1083

Loft lights are specially designed for interiors in industrial style.

Cable and track lightings are particularly useful to highlight certain areas. Cable length (light height) can be adjusted. The lights produce spot illumination. Halogen and LED lamps are preferable. You can choose any number and position of the lights to suit your needs.

In Kitchens, Loft pendants are typically placed on a dinner table, in living rooms – above a coffee table or in the center of the furniture set. You can use several lights and wall-mounted lamps in one room.

Before fitting any lighting, you must cut off electricity first.

Manufacturers provide installation instructions for each light individually, read them carefully.

Safety requirements must be observed at all times. Negligence can have severe consequences.

Manufacturers and models

Italian brand Lussole has been successfully trading in the international market of interior lights for more than 20 years.

LED and halogen lamps, floor lamps, wall lights and many other products both practical and elegant, in any price range. They can satisfy any customer and provide the best value for the top quality and design.

Twenty years of experience, discount system, and flexible pricing policy made the company one of the leaders in home and interior lighting market.

Loft lights are made in urban style and have the simple and neat design. They will be at easy in modern interiors. Brown metal frame emphasizes a sense of Loft style.

Swedish company LampGustaf appeared on the market in the middle of the past century. Today LamGustaf operates in China, Central, and Eastern European countries.

The company produces home and office lights. Talented designers from all over the globe take part in creating new lights for LampGustaf. A wide variety of materials, style solutions, and new techniques make LampGustaf lights unique and highly popular among consumers.

Pendants produced by LampGustaf have the non-trivial and creative look. Open and half-open lamp shades made of metal and glass proudly fit into Loft interiors.

Italian company Arte Lamp appeared on the market in 2001.  Over more than 15 years of successful production, Arte Lamp won confidence and recognition by customers not only in Italy but far out of its borders.

Lights produce by Arte Lamp are sold in twenty countries. They are known for an all-time high Italian quality, classy design, and integrity.

Arte Lamp Edison represents the concept of an ordinary incandescent lamp transformed to unique designer lighting. Arte Lamp has an exclusive Loft line of lighting that combines simplicity in design and high-quality materials.

Italian company Ideal Lux has been working in the market for more than 45 years. A small enterprise established by GiovanbattistaStrano in Milan developed into a large, successful and well-known company.

Lights produced by Ideal Lux have a sophisticated and thought-out design, Italian quality and the wide range of models. Chandeliers are decorated with crystals, Murano glass, linen, silk, etc.


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