Patient Safety Risks

As noted in the Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human, “It may be part of human nature to err, but it is also part of human nature to create solutions, find better alternatives, and meet the challenges ahead” (Institute of Medicine, 1999, p. 15).

What are the most common—or most significant—risks to patient safety? How do these risks vary in different health care settings or with disparate groups of patients? What can be done to address these risks? You will explore these questions and more in this Application Assignment.

To prepare for this Application:

  • Begin by brainstorming types of health care organizations and groups of patients (e.g., geriatric patients requiring chronic care, pediatric patients admitted for acute care).Identify a particular type of setting and/or patient population to help you pinpoint your focus for the following step.
  • Review the National Patient Safety Goals, the CDC’s NHSN Web site, and the information on patient safety concerns presented in the other Learning Resources.Select a specific patient safety risk (e.g., patient falls, medication reconciliation) to focus on for this assignment.
  • Analyze the systems errors and/or human factors errors that should be considered with regard to this safety risk.
  • Reflect on related insights that could be gained from high-reliability organizations. What approaches do these organizations use that might be applicable within a health care organization?
  • Consider the strategies and tools (e.g., Six Sigma, Lean) that could be used to assess and reduce this particular risk.
  • Evaluate the potential benefits of patient and family involvement and steps that could be taken to ensure that they are included in this endeavor.

Note: To complete this Application Assignment, you will need to use the Learning Resources assigned in both Weeks 4 and 5.

The Assignment

Write a 4- to 5-page paper that addresses the following:

  • Briefly summarize the patient safety risk you have selected, and provide a rationale for why it deserves particular attention.
  • Analyze the influence of systems errors and human factors errors with regard to this risk.
  • Discuss related insights that could be gained from high-reliability organizations and how they might be applied within a health care organization.
  • Propose strategies and tools for assessing and reducing risk related to this safety issue.
  • Describe how patients and patients’ families can be involved in addressing this issue.

This Application is due at the end of Week 5. See the Week 5 Application area for submission instructions.

Your written assignments must follow APA guidelines. Be sure to support your work with specific citations from this week’s Learning Resources and from additional scholarly sources as appropriate. Refer to the Essential Guide to APA Style for Walden Students to ensure that your in-text citations and reference list are correct.

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Write a 1,750- word paper researching the access to essential medicines in INDIA. And answer the following questions:

AWhich essential medicines are manufactured locally, and which ones are imported?

BWhat is the role of government in providing access to essential medicines?

CWhat is the role of private sectors in providing access to essential medicines?

DWhat partnerships and collaborations have been made to improve access to essential medicines in your country of choice?

EWhat is the role of the United States in providing essential medicines?

FCompare the access of essential medicines of this country to the United States. What are the differences, and why are there differences?

GWhat practices could the United States adopt from this country to improve access to essential medicines?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

References in a separate page and in the body of the text.

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Midwifery and Indigenous Health

School of Nursing, Midwifery and
Indigenous Health

Subject Outlines

Subject Name: GHMB957 Rehabilitation
Concepts and Practice


Section A: Subject

Code & Name:
Rehabilitation Concepts and Practice
Credit Points: 6
Pre-requisite(s): None
Co-requisite(s): None
Restrictions: None
Equivalence: None
Assessment: Group online debate 40%,
Session: Case study report and Rehabilitation
resource 60%
Spring 2013
Campus Locations: Wollongong
Delivery Method: Flexible/Distance
Contact Hours: 2 days workshops and 4 x 2hr
tutorials (compulsory for international on campus
flexible learners
and optional for distance learners) and online (compulsory for all

Subject Timetable

timetable information is subject to variation, with last minute room changes
due to change in enrolment numbers being the most common. Check the latest
information on the university web timetable via the

Timetable link under Study Resources on the
Current Students webpage or log into SOLS to view your personal timetable prior
to attending classes, particularly in the first few weeks of session.

Subject Coordinator

Name: Victoria

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Building 41, Room 209
Consultation times: Mondays 12:00-14:00 and Wednesdays 15:00-17:00

Telephone: 61 2 4221



Location: 41.152

Telephone: 61 2 4221


Prescribed Text

AJ & Hastings, MB (eds) 2002, Rehabilitation of the older person: a
handbook for the interdisciplinary team,
 3rd edn, Nelson Thornes Publishers
Ltd, Cheltenham.

Assessment Tasks

1- Using Assistive Technology
in Rehabilitation
2- Developing a
Rehabilitation Plan with an Older
Interventions with
Older People:
Group Online Debate Case Study Report and Rehabilitation
Due Date Due Date
Wednesday 14th, 21st and 28th August and Wednesday 6TH November, Study
4th September, Weeks
Percentage: 60%
Percentage: 40%

eLearning Space

information regarding the eLearning spaces please use the following links:
Blackboard Vista –

Moodle –

Subject Outline:


© University of
Wollongong 2013. All rights reserved.


.gif”>Section A: Subject

Subject Description

This subject aims to provide
an opportunity for learners to develop a deeper understanding of the concepts
and practice of rehabilitation care through its associated partnerships.

The content will include the following

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 Mastering Modern Psychological Testing: Theory and Methods

PSY 527

Assessment Techniques

TextMastering Modern Psychological TestingTheory and Methods

First Edition, 2012

ISBN 13: 978-0-205-48350-1

Author(s):      Cecil R. Reynolds and Ronald B. Livingston

Publisher: Pearson





Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

  1. Performance on pure                            tests are assessed based on time, while pure _______ _
    tests are assessed based on d iffic u Ity.
  2. speed; power
  3. power; speed
  4. achievement; maximum performance
  5. maximum performance; achievement
  6. Which scores would be interpreted appropriately for measuring a student’s mastery of a
    specific domain of knowledge?
  7. Norm-referenced scores
  8. Criterion-referenced scores
  9. Standardized-referenced scores
  10. Projective-referenced scores
  11. A classroom teacher gives her students a final exam that is the basis for 50 of their final
    grade in the course. This is an example of which type of evaluation?
  12. Projective eval uation
  13. Summative evaluation
  14. Formative evaluation
  15. Feedback evaluation
  16. 4. The majority of assessment information collected by most teachers comes from:
  17. professionally developed tests.
  18. state-wide tests.
  19. performance tests.
  20. teacher made te
  21. 5. Susan has been evaluated and determined to be learning disabled. This is an example of:
  22. assignment.
  23. placement






  1. The Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) is atn):
  2. pure speed test.
  3. maximum performance test.
  4. typical response test.
  5. projective test.
  6. If the range of one or both variables is restricted, the resulting correlation coefficient will
  7. be decreased.
  8. be increased.
  9. remain the same.
  10. either increase or decrease depending on the calculati




  1. 8.

Correlation       imply causation.

  1. does
  2. does not
  3. might, depending on the scale of measurement
  4. none of the above





  1. The correlation between two variables is 0.70. Using the concept of the coefficient of
    determination, the proportion of variance that is determined or predictable from

the relationship between the two measures is:


  1. 14.
  2. 70.
  3. A special mathematical procedure for predicting scores on one variable (criterion or Y)
    given a score on another (predictor or X) is:
  4. correlational analysis.
  5. linear regression.
  6. regression analysis.
  7. prediction constant.
  8. 11. Why would a psychologist feel that the variance might be difficult to interpret?
  9. It is a nonlinear transformation.
  10. It is an area transformation.
  11. It may be a negative number.
  12. It uses squared raw score units.


    • click here for more information on this paper


  1. In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores will fall between one standard
    deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?
  2. 16
  3. 34
  4. 68
  5. 84
  6. The “Flynn Effect” refers to:
  7. decreases in IQ observed during the 20th century.
  8. decreases in SAT scores observed during the 20th century.
  9. increases in SAT scores observed during the 20th century.
  10. increases in IQ observed during the 20th century.




  1. 14.

Wechsler subtest scaled scores have a mean of

  1. 0; 1
  2. 10; 3
  3. 50; 10
  4. 500; 100

and a standard deviation of





  1. The norms for a standardized intelligence test describe the:
  2. ideal level of performance.
  3. minimum acceptable level of performance.
  4. performance of a specified group.
  5. performance of a successful group.
  6. 16. A percentile rank of __ indicates performance at the median of the reference group.
  7. 49
  8. 49.5
  9. 50
  10. 51
  11. interpretations can be applied to a wider variety of tests than ____________ _


  1. Criterion-referenced; norm-referenced
  2. Norm-referenced; criterion-referenced
  3. Both are about equal in their applications.
  4. None of the above





  1. CEEB (SAT/GRE) scores have a mean of __ and a standard deviation of __ .
  2. 0; 1
  3. 50; 10
  4. 100; 15
  5. 500; 100
  6. Sally’s obtained score on a statistics exam is 75. The SEM is 2. With what confidence
    interval would we capture her true score 68 of the time?
  7. 71 to 79
  8. 73 to 77
  9. 69t081
  10. 70 to 80
  11. The average of all possible split-half coefficients is known as:
  12. Coefficient alph
  13. correlation coefficient.
  14. alternate form reliability.
  15. Spearman-Brown coefficient.
  16. 21. The Spearman-Brown formula is used to:
  17. correct a split-half reliability coefficient.
  18. estimate construct reliabili
  19. perform a curvilinear transformation of the scores.
  20. perform a linear transformation of the scores.
  21. 22. is a result of transient events in the test taker (fatigue, illness, etc.) and the

testing environment (temperature, noise level, etc.),

  1. Administration error
  2. Content sampling error
  3. Temporal instability
  4. Systematic measurement error
  5. The reliability index reflects the correlation between:
  6. true scores and observed scores.
  7. true scores and measurement error.
  8. observed scores and measurement er
  9. true scores and true scores.






  1. What happens to the size of confidence intervals as reliability coefficients increase?
  2. They decrease.
  3. They increase.
  4. They remain the same.
  5. It is indeterminate: it depends on the construct being measured.
  6. 25. is a useful index when comparing the reliability of the scores produced by

different tests, but when the focus is on interpreting the test scores of individuals, the
_____ is more practical.

  1. Rei iabi I ity Coefficient; Standard Error of Measurement
  2. Standard Error of Measurement; Rei iabi I ity Coefficient
  3. Standard Error of Esti mate; Coefficient AI pha
  4. Standard Error of Estimate; Reliability Coefficient






Writing Assignment for Unit One

  • Include your namestudent numbercourse numbercourse title and unit number on each page
    of your writing assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).
  • Begin each writing assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by
    the actual question itself (in bold type).
  • Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (e. an introduction, middle
    paragraphs and conclusion),
  • Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size,

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. However,
students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit writing assignments
that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages,
Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages,
Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.


All work must be free of any form of plagiarism, Put written answers into youown wordsDo not simply cut
and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook, Be sure to refer to
the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles,

Please answeONE of thfollowing:

  1. Generate examples to illustrate positive and negative correlations, Exam ine a theoretical
    situation where two variables are correlated, but there is clearly no causation, Evaluate the
    example provided in Special Interest Topic 2,6: Caution – Drawing Conclusions of Causality.
  2. Evaluate why reliability is important in psychological assessment. Next, differentiate between
    various levels of reliability that may be recommended for different situa What level of
    reliability might be acceptable for a brief screening test used to screen research subjects for
    depression or anxiety? For an IQ test used to help diagnose mental retardation? For a high-
    stakes test that must be passed in order to graduate from high school? Examine the SAT or ACT
    college admission tests in reference to rei iabi lity.
  3. Analyze the nature of the Flynn Effect and its various implications, What factors do you believe
    are driving the increase in IQ? How would you explain the fact that over much of the past
    century there has been a decrease in SAT scores, in light of the increase in IQ? What do you
    think the social implications of the Flynn Effect might be?






Multiple Choice Question(Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)




  1. 1.

There exists a relatively sophisticated validation technique referred to as _________________ that

combines convergent and divergent strategies.

  1. analysis of variance
  2. factor analysis
  3. linear regression
  4. multitrait-multimethod matrix





  1. Which factor analytic method analyzes only shared variance while excluding unique and
    error variance?
  2. Component Factor Analysis
  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  4. Principal Component Analysis
  5. Principal Factor Analysis
  6. After examinees complete a math reasoning test, they are interviewed by researchers on
    what processes and strategies they engaged in when completing the test. Which

type of validity evidence are these researchers collecting?

  1. Validity evidence based on consequences of testing.
  2. Validity evidence based on test content.
  3. Validity evidence based on relations to other variables.
  4. Validity evidence based on response processes.
  5. Which type of validity evidence can best be strengthened by the use of a table of
  6. Validity evidence based on consequences of testing.
  7. Val id ity evidence based on test content.
  8. Validity evidence based on relations to other variables.
  9. Validity evidence based on response processes.
  10. is the most common approach to establishing the validity of academic

achievement tests.

  1. Validity evidence based on consequences of testing.
  2. Validity evidence based on test content.
  3. Validity evidence based on relations to other variables.
  4. Validity evidence based on response processes.





  1. Test-criterion validity evidence is an example of:
  2. validity evidence based on consequences of testing.
  3. validity evidence based on test content.
  4. validity evidence based on relations to other variables.
  5. validity evidence based on response processes.
  6. What percentage of the Examination for Professional Practice on Psychology covers the
    Biological Basis of Behavior content area?
  7. 5
  8. 11
  9. 21
  10. 32
  11. 8. Performance on the EPPP is reported in which score format?
  12. Raw scores
  13. Scaled scores
  14. T scores
  15. Z scores
  16. What is Step 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination?
  17. Clinical knowledge and clinical skills
  18. Computer based multiple-choice assessment
  19. Computer based multiple-choice assessment with computer based case simulation
  20. Patient simulations
  21. An important test-taking skill to teach students is:
  22. “Do not answer questions you are not sure of.”
  23. “Never return to a question and change your answer.”
  24. “Get through the test as quickly as possible.”
  25. “Make informed guesses by process of elimi”
  26. The National Assessment of Educational Progress provides a comprehensive assessment of
    students’ achievement at certain critical periods in their academic experience. These
    grade levels are:
  27. 2nd, 6th, and 10th.
  28. 4th, 8th, and 12th.
  29. 5th, 7th, and 11th.
  30. 6th, 8th, 12th.






  1. What law mandates that any institution that receives federal funds must ensure that
    individuals with disabilities have equal access to all programs and services provided by the
  2. No Child Left Behind Act 2001
  3. Section 504 of the Rehabi I itation Act of 1973
  4. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004
  5. The Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
  6. Deductive and inductive logic are considered the hallmarks of which broad ability domain
    under CHC theory?
  7. Comprehension-knowledge
  8. Fluid reasoning
  9. Processing ability
  10. Static reasoning
  11. The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales is normed for individuals between the ages

of              and

  1. 2; 85
  2. 3; 94
  3. 6; 16
  4. 16; 89
  5. Regarding research on intelligence, Cattell is best known for:
  6. identifying seven Primary Mental Abilities.
  7. P-A-S-S Theory
  8. C-H-C Theory
  9. Two-Factor Theory, which hypothesizes the existence of crystallized and fluid
    i ntell igence
  10. Which intelligence theory has served as the foundation for most modern IQ tests?
  11. CHC Theory
  12. PASS Theory
  13. Spearman’s two-factor model
  14. Wechsler’s theory of general and fluid intelligence
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