Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

a) In random assignment each participant
has an equal chance for each condition.

b) In random assignment each participant
is assigned alphabetically to each condition.

c) Random assignment can only be
determined after an experiment is over.

d) The best formula for random assignment
is birth dates.

Learning
Objective 1.11
 – How do the placebo
and experimenter effects cause problems in an experiment, and how can
single-blind and double-blind studies control for these effects?

172. Which of the following situations best
illustrates the placebo effect?

a) You sleep because you are tired.

b) You throw up after eating bad meat.

c) You have surgery to repair a defective
heart valve.

d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become
“intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol.

173. The placebo effect means __________.

a) all
conditions in an experiment are the same

b) that
there is no control group

c) the
expectations of the participants influence their behavior

d)
experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely

174.
Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that
was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill,
Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually
made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain
Sandy Sue’s drowsy feeling?

a)
experimenter effect

b) placebo
effect

c) subject
bias

d)
treatment effect

175. Two groups of graduate
students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1
was told that they had “very smart” rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was
told that they had “very stupid” rats that should learn slowly. In actuality,
neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite
of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much
more quickly. How can that be explained?

a)
experimenter effect

b) placebo
effect

c) subject
bias

d) treatment
effect

176.
Unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by
the experimenter are called __________.

a) replications

b) experimenter
effects

c) volunteer
biases

d) single-blind
studies

177.
__________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in
the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which
participants are part of which group.

a) The
double-blind study

b) Field research

c) The
single-blind study

d) Correlational
research

178. Double-blind studies
control for __________.

a) only the placebo effect

b) only the experimenter effect

c) both the placebo effect and the
experimenter effect

d) extrinsic motivation

179.
__________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the
individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental
or the control group until after the results are tallied.

a) The
double-blind study

b) Field research

c) The
single-blind study

d) Correlational
research

 
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