Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?
a) In random assignment each participant
has an equal chance for each condition.
b) In random assignment each participant
is assigned alphabetically to each condition.
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c) Random assignment can only be
determined after an experiment is over.
d) The best formula for random assignment
is birth dates.
Objective 1.11 – How do the placebo
and experimenter effects cause problems in an experiment, and how can
single-blind and double-blind studies control for these effects?
172. Which of the following situations best
illustrates the placebo effect?
a) You sleep because you are tired.
b) You throw up after eating bad meat.
c) You have surgery to repair a defective
d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become
“intoxicated” because you think it contains alcohol.
173. The placebo effect means __________.
conditions in an experiment are the same
there is no control group
expectations of the participants influence their behavior
experimenter bias causes the subjects to act strangely
Sandy Sue was participating in an experiment in which she was given a pill that
was supposed to cause her to get drowsy. Five minutes after taking the pill,
Sandy Sue reported that she felt drowsy and wanted to lie down. The pill was actually
made of sugar and had no ingredients to cause drowsiness. How do you explain
Sandy Sue’s drowsy feeling?
175. Two groups of graduate
students were given rats and were told to teach them how to run mazes. Group 1
was told that they had “very smart” rats that should learn quickly. Group 2 was
told that they had “very stupid” rats that should learn slowly. In actuality,
neither group was any different and the rats were randomly assigned. In spite
of that, when the experiment concluded, Group 1 rats had learned the maze much
more quickly. How can that be explained?
Unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by
the experimenter are called __________.
__________ is an experiment in which participants do not know if they are in
the experimental or the control group but the experimenters do know which
participants are part of which group.
b) Field research
178. Double-blind studies
control for __________.
a) only the placebo effect
b) only the experimenter effect
c) both the placebo effect and the
d) extrinsic motivation
__________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the
individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental
or the control group until after the results are tallied.
b) Field research