To what extent are earnings differentials between workers, otherwise comparable

To what extent are earnings differentials between workers, otherwise comparable in their human capital characteristics, attributable to this factor (provide examples):
A) unpleasant (disagreeable, hazardous) vs. pleasant jobs or working conditions, i.e., compensating wage differentials for these working conditions?
B) ONE of their personal characteristics — either their age, gender, race/ethnicity or appearance — for which employers might tend to engage in at least one particular type of labor market discrimination (e.g., applying the pure, statistical and occupational crowding models)?
C) being a member of labor union — either a craft, industrial vs. professional type of union?
D) employers decide to use of “efficiency wage” pay strategies, within “internal labor market” structures, which are intended to promote a future increase in marginal revenue product (MRP) or decrease in average cost of labor?

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