The use of outside scholarly resources (articles, books, etc) will be rewarded but is not required.? The recommended length per answer is 150? words.? Answer each questio

The use of outside scholarly resources (articles, books, etc) will be rewarded but is not required.? The recommended length per answer is 150? words.? Answer each questio

The use of outside scholarly resources (articles, books, etc) will be rewarded but is not required.  The recommended length per answer is 150  words.  Answer each question using complete sentences, paragraph structure, and academic/professional language. Keep use of the first-person voice to a minimum. Use APA style for all citations and Works cited

1) After having read the  Download the  Pew Study on Social Media and Teens, what stood out for you as interesting, memorable or surprising?  Explain why these aspects were chosen. 

2) On the whole, do you feel social media to be a positive or negative force in the lives of young people?  Provide evidence to support your position. 

3) If you were a parent, how would you manage social media and technology in the lives of your children?  

FOR RELEASE MAY 31, 2018

BY Monica Anderson and Jingjing Jiang

FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES:

Monica Anderson, Research Associate

Aaron Smith, Associate Director

Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager

202.419.4372

www.pewresearch.org

RECOMMENDED CITATION

Pew Research Center, May 2018, “Teens, Social

Media & Technology 2018”

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About Pew Research Center

Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes

and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. It conducts public

opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science

research. The Center studies U.S. politics and policy; journalism and media; internet, science and

technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and trends; and U.S. social

and demographic trends. All of the Center’s reports are available at www.pewresearch.org. Pew

Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

© Pew Research Center 2018

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Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018

Until recently, Facebook had

dominated the social media

landscape among America’s youth –

but it is no longer the most popular

online platform among teens,

according to a new Pew Research

Center survey. Today, roughly half

(51%) of U.S. teens ages 13 to 17 say

they use Facebook, notably lower

than the shares who use YouTube,

Instagram or Snapchat.

This shift in teens’ social media use

is just one example of how the

technology landscape for young

people has evolved since the Center’s

last survey of teens and technology

use in 2014-2015. Most notably,

smartphone ownership has become a

nearly ubiquitous element of teen

life: 95% of teens now report they

have a smartphone or access to one.

These mobile connections are in turn fueling more-persistent online activities: 45% of teens now

say they are online on a near-constant basis.

The survey also finds there is no clear consensus among teens about the effect that social media

has on the lives of young people today. Minorities of teens describe that effect as mostly positive

(31%) or mostly negative (24%), but the largest share (45%) says that effect has been neither

positive nor negative.

These are some of the main findings from the Center’s survey of U.S. teens conducted March 7-

April 10, 2018. Throughout the report, “teens” refers to those ages 13 to 17.

YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat are the most

popular online platforms among teens

% of U.S. teens who …

Note: Figures in first column add to more than 100% because multiple responses were

allowed. Question about most-used site was asked only of respondents who use multiple

sites; results have been recalculated to include those who use only one site. Respondents

who did not give an answer are not shown.

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.

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70

56

36

Less than $30K

$30K -$74,999

$75K or more

Facebook is no longer the dominant online platform among teens

The social media landscape in which teens reside looks markedly different than it did as recently

as three years ago. In the Center’s 2014-2015 survey of teen social media use, 71% of teens

reported being Facebook users. No other platform was used by a clear majority of teens at the

time: Around half (52%) of teens said they used Instagram, while 41% reported using Snapchat.

In 2018, three online platforms other than Facebook – YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat – are

used by sizable majorities of this age group. Meanwhile, 51% of teens now say they use Facebook.

The shares of teens who use Twitter and Tumblr are largely comparable to the shares who did so in

the 2014-2015 survey.

For the most part, teens tend to use similar

platforms regardless of their demographic

characteristics, but there are exceptions.

Notably, lower-income teens are more likely to

gravitate toward Facebook than those from

higher-income households – a trend

consistent with previous Center surveys.

Seven-in-ten teens living in households

earning less than $30,000 a year say they use

Facebook, compared with 36% whose annual

family income is $75,000 or more. (For details

on social media platform use by different

demographic groups, see Appendix A.)

It is important to note there were some

changes in question wording between Pew Research Center’s 2014-2015 and 2018 surveys of teen

social media use. YouTube and Reddit were not included as options in the 2014-2015 survey but

were included in the current survey. In addition, the 2014-2015 survey required respondents to

provide an explicit response for whether or not they used each platform, while the 2018 survey

presented respondents with a list of sites and allowed them to select the ones they use.1 Even so, it

1 These surveys also used different methods in recruiting teens, as well as different methods for interviewing those who did not have a home

internet connection. In 2018, those without home internet were interviewed via telephone, while the 2014-2015 respondents were given a

web-enabled device and internet service to complete the survey. Please read the Methodology section for full details on how the 2018 survey

was conducted.

Lower-income teens are more likely

than teens from higher-income

households to use Facebook

% of U.S. teens, by annual household income, who say

they use Facebook

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.

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is clear the social media environment today revolves less around a single platform than it did three

years ago.2

When it comes to which one of these online platforms teens use the most, roughly one-third say

they visit Snapchat (35%) or YouTube (32%) most often, while 15% say the same of Instagram. By

comparison, 10% of teens say Facebook is their most-used online platform, and even fewer cite

Twitter, Reddit or Tumblr as the site they visit most often.

Again, lower-income teens are far more likely than those from higher income households to say

Facebook is the online platform they use most often (22% vs. 4%). There are also some differences

related to gender and to race and ethnicity when it comes to teens’ most-used sites. Girls are more

likely than boys to say Snapchat is the site they use most often (42% vs. 29%), while boys are more

inclined than girls to identify YouTube as their go-to platform (39% vs. 25%). Additionally, white

teens (41%) are more likely than Hispanic (29%) or black (23%) teens to say Snapchat is the online

platform they use most often, while black teens are more likely than whites to identify Facebook as

their most used site (26% vs. 7%).

2 Other studies on teens’ social media use have shown a similar shift in digital platform use among teens. See The Associated Press-NORC

Center for Public Affairs Research’s 2017 report: http://apnorc.org/projects/Pages/HTML%20Reports/instagram-and-snapchat-are-most-

popular-social-networks-for-teens.aspx#footnote-1

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Teens have mixed views on the impact of social media on their lives

Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of social media in their lives, there is no clear consensus

among teens about these platforms’ ultimate impact on people their age. A plurality of teens (45%)

believe social media has a neither positive nor negative effect on people their age. Meanwhile,

roughly three-in-ten teens (31%) say social media has had a mostly positive impact, while 24%

describe its effect as mostly negative.

Given the opportunity to explain their views in their own words, teens who say social media has

had a mostly positive effect tended to stress issues related to connectivity and connection with

others. Some 40% of these respondents say that social media has had a positive impact because it

helps them keep in touch and interact with others. Many of these responses emphasize how social

media makes it easier to communicate with family and friends and to connect with new people:

“I think social media have a positive effect because it lets you talk to family members far

away.” (Girl, age 14)

“I feel that social media can make people my age feel less lonely or alone. It creates a

space where you can interact with people.” (Girl, age 15)

“It enables people to connect with friends easily and be able to make new friends as well.”

(Boy, age 15)

Others in this group cite the greater access to news and information that social media facilitates

(16%), or being able to connect with people who share similar interests (15%):

“My mom had to get a ride to the library to get what I have in my hand all the time. She

reminds me of that a lot.” (Girl, age 14)

“It has given many kids my age an outlet to express their opinions and emotions, and

connect with people who feel the same way.” (Girl, age 15)

Smaller shares argue that social media is a good venue for entertainment (9%), that it offers a

space for self-expression (7%) or that it allows teens to get support from others (5%) or to learn

new things in general (4%).

“Because a lot of things created or made can spread joy.” (Boy, age 17)

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“[Social media] allows us to

communicate freely and see what

everyone else is doing. [It]

gives us a voice that can reach

many people.” (Boy, age 15)

“We can connect easier with people

from different places and we are

more likely to ask for help through

social media which can save

people.” (Girl, age 15)

There is slightly less consensus among

teens who say social media has had a

mostly negative effect on people their age.

The top response (mentioned by 27% of

these teens) is that social media leads to

more bullying and the overall spread of

rumors.

“Gives people a bigger audience to

speak and teach hate and belittle

each other.” (Boy, age 13)

“People can say whatever they

want with anonymity and I think

that has a negative impact.” (Boy,

age 15)

“Because teens are killing people

all because of the things they see

on social media or because of the

things that happened on social

media.” (Girl, age 14)

Meanwhile, 17% of these respondents feel these platforms harm relationships and result in less

meaningful human interactions. Similar shares think social media distorts reality and gives teens

Teens have mixed views on social media’s effect on

people their age; many say it helps them connect

with others, some express concerns about bullying

Note: Respondents who did not give an answer are not shown. Verbatim responses have

been coded into categories, and figures may add up to more than 100% because

multiple responses were allowed.

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.

“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”

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an unrealistic view of other people’s lives (15%), or that teens spend too much time on social media

(14%).

“It has a negative impact on social (in-person) interactions.” (Boy, age 17)

“It makes it harder for people to socialize in real life, because they become accustomed to

not interacting with people in person.” (Girl, age 15)

“It provides a fake image of someone’s life. It sometimes makes me feel that their life is

perfect when it is not.” (Girl, age 15)

“[Teens] would rather go scrolling on their phones instead of doing their homework, and

it’s so easy to do so. It’s just a

huge distraction.” (Boy, age 17)

Another 12% criticize social media for

influencing teens to give in to peer

pressure, while smaller shares express

concerns that these sites could lead to

psychological issues or drama.

Vast majority of teens have access to

a home computer or smartphone

Some 95% of teens now say they have or

have access to a smartphone, which

represents a 22- percentage-point

increase from the 73% of teens who said

this in 2014-2015. Smartphone ownership

is nearly universal among teens of

different genders, races and ethnicities

and socioeconomic backgrounds.

A more nuanced story emerges when it

comes to teens’ access to computers.

While 88% of teens report having access

to a desktop or laptop computer at home,

access varies greatly by income level.

Smartphone access nearly ubiquitous among teens,

while having a home computer varies by income

% of U.S. teens who say they have or have access to a ___ at home

Note: Whites and blacks include only non-Hispanics. Hispanics are of any race. Parent’s

level of education based on highest level of education associated with a teen’s parent.

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.

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24

45

56

44

20

11 2018

2014-

2015

Almost

constantly

Several

times a day

Less

often

Fully 96% of teens from households with an annual income of $75,000 or more per year say they

have access to a computer at home, but that share falls to 75% among those from households

earning less than $30,000 a year.

Computer access also varies by the level of education among parents. Teens who have a parent

with a bachelor’s degree or more are more likely to say they have access to a computer than teens

whose parents have a high school diploma or less (94% vs. 78%).

A growing share of teens describe their internet use as near-constant

As smartphone access has become more prevalent, a

growing share of teens now report

using the internet on a near-constant basis. Some 45%

of teens say they use the internet “almost constantly,” a

figure that has nearly doubled from the 24% who said

this in the 2014-2015 survey. Another 44% say they go

online several times a day, meaning roughly nine-in-ten

teens go online at least multiple times per day.

There are some differences in teens’ frequency of

internet use by gender, as well as race and ethnicity.

Half of teenage girls (50%) are near-constant online

users, compared with 39% of teenage boys. And

Hispanic teens are more likely than whites to report

using the internet almost constantly (54% vs. 41%).

45% of teens say they’re online almost

constantly

% of U.S. teens who say they use the internet, either on a

computer or a cellphone …

Note: “Less often” category includes teens who say they use the

internet “about once a day,” “several times a week” and “less

often.”

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018. Trend data from

previous Pew Research Center survey conducted in 2014-2015.

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75

83

92

97

0 50 100

Girls Boys

Have/have access

to a gaming console

Play video games

A majority of both boys and girls play video games, but gaming is nearly universal for boys

Overall, 84% of teens say they have or have access to a game

console at home, and 90% say they play video games of any kind

(whether on a computer, game console or cellphone). While a

substantial majority of girls report having access to a game console

at home (75%) or playing video games in general (83%), those

shares are even higher among boys. Roughly nine-in-ten boys

(92%) have or have access to a game console at home, and 97% say

they play video games in some form or fashion.

There has been growth in game console ownership among Hispanic

teens and teens from lower-income families since the Center’s

previous study of the teen technology landscape in 2014-2015. The

share of Hispanics who say they have access to a game console at

home grew by 10 percentage points during this time period. And

85% of teens from households earning less than $30,000 a year

now say they have a game console at home, up from 67% in 2014-

2015.

Most teen boys and girls

play video games

% of U.S. teens who say they …

Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10,

2018.

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Acknowledgements

This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals.

Find related reports online at pewresearch.org/internet.

Primary researchers

Monica Anderson, Research Associate

Jingjing Jiang, Research Analyst

Research team

Aaron Smith, Associate Director, Research

Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research

Kenneth Olmstead, Research Associate

Ruth Igielnik, Research Associate

Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst

Editorial and graphic design

Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer

David Kent, Copy Editor

Communications and web publishing

Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager

Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer

Sara Atske, Assistant Digital Producer

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Methodology

This analysis is based on a survey that was conducted using the NORC AmeriSpeak panel.

AmeriSpeak is a nationally representative, probability-based panel of the U.S. household

population. Randomly selected U.S. households are sampled with a known, nonzero probability of

selection from the NORC National Frame, and then contacted by U.S. mail, telephone and field

interviewers (face to face). More details about the NORC AmeriSpeak panel methodology are

available here.

This particular survey featured interviews with 1,058 parents who belong to the panel and have a

teen ages 13 to 17, as well as interviews with 743 teens. Interviews were conducted online and by

telephone from March 7 to April 10, 2018. The survey was conducted by NORC.

The margin of sampling error is plus or minus 5.0 percentage points for the full sample of 743 teen

respondents and 4.5 percentage points for the full sample of 1,058 parent respondents.

The data were weighted in a multistep process that begins with the panel base sampling weights.

Panel base sampling weights for all sampled housing units are computed as the inverse of

probability of selection from the NORC National Frame (the sampling frame that is used to sample

housing units for AmeriSpeak) or address-based sample. The sample design and recruitment

protocol for the AmeriSpeak Panel involves subsampling of initial nonrespondent housing units.

These subsampled nonrespondent housing units are selected for an in-person follow-up. The

subsample of housing units selected for the nonresponse follow-up (NRFU) have their panel base

sampling weights inflated by the inverse of the subsampling rate. The base sampling weights are

further adjusted to account for unknown eligibility and nonresponse among eligible housing units.

The household-level nonresponse adjusted weights are then post-stratified to external counts for

number of households obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey. Then,

these household-level post-stratified weights are assigned to each eligible adult in every recruited

household. Furthermore, a person-level nonresponse adjustment accounts for nonresponding

adults within a recruited household. Teen panelists carry over the parent’s panel weight.

Finally, panel weights were raked to external population totals associated with age, sex, education,

race/Hispanic ethnicity, housing tenure, telephone status and Census Division. The external

population totals were obtained from the Current Population Survey. The weights adjusted to the

external population totals are the final panel weights.

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Study-specific base sampling weights are derived using a combination of the final panel weight

and the probability of selection associated with the sampled panel member. Since not all sampled

panel members respond to the survey interview, an adjustment is needed to account for and adjust

for survey nonrespondents. This adjustment decreases potential nonresponse bias associated with

sampled panel members who did not complete the survey interview for the study. Thus, the

nonresponse-adjusted survey weights for the study were adjusted via a raking ratio method to

general population totals associated with the following socio-demographic characteristics: age,

sex, education, income, race/Hispanic ethnicity and Census Division for the parent respondents,

and the following socio-demographic characteristics for the teen respondents: age, sex,

race/Hispanic ethnicity, highest level education associated with teen’s parents and Census

Division associated with the teen’s household. The weights adjusted to the 2017 March Current

Population Survey population totals are the final study weights, which were used to produce the

estimates in this report.

The following table shows the unweighted sample sizes and the error attributable to sampling that

would be expected at the 95% level of confidence for teens and parents in the survey:

Sample sizes and sampling errors for key subgroups are as follows:

Group Unweighted sample size Plus or minus …

Teens sample 743 5.0 percentage points

Parents sample 1,058 4.5 percentage points

Group Unweighted sample size Plus or minus …

Teens sample

Boys 348 7.2 percentage points

Girls 393 6.8 percentage points

White 355 7.2 percentage points

Black 129 11.9 percentage points

Hispanic 202 9.5 percentage points

13-14 301 7.8 percentage points

15-17 442 6.4 percentage points

Less than $30K 199 9.6 percentage points

$30K to $74,999 266 8.3 percentage points

$75K and up 278 8.1 percentage points

Parent’s educational attainment:

High school or less 142 11.3 percentage points

Some college 265 8.3 percentage points

College graduate+ 329 7.4 percentage points

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In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical

difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.

The parent survey had a survey completion rate of 83% (1,058 completed interviews out of 1,274

screened eligible panelists). Taking account of the combined, weighted response rate for the

recruitment surveys (34%) and attrition from panel members who were removed at their request

or for inactivity, the weighted cumulative response rate for the parent survey is 8%.

The teen survey had a survey completion rate of 69% (743 completed interviews out of 1,075

screened eligible panelists for whom parental consent was granted). Taking account of the

combined, weighted response rate for the recruitment surveys (34%) and attrition from panel

members who were removed at their request or for inactivity, the weighted cumulative response

rate for the teen survey is 18%.

Pew Research Center is a nonprofit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization and a subsidiary of The

Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.

© Pew Research Center, 2018

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Appendix A: Detailed tables

Online platform use among U.S. teens, by demographic group

% of U.S. teens who say they use …

YouTube Instagram Snapchat Facebook Twitter Tumblr Reddit

U.S. teens 85 72 69 51 32 9 7

Boys 89 69 67 49 33 9 11

Girls 81 75 72 53 32 9 4

White 86 73 72 48 33 10 8

Black 79 72 77 57 29 11 5

Hispanic 85 72 64 58 36 7 7

13-14 84 63 63 47 24 7 4

15-17 86 78 74 54 38 11 9

Less than $30K 86 74 77 70 40 10 10

$30K to $74,999 84 72 71 56 30 8 4

$75K and up 85 71 64 36 30 11 8

Parent’s level of educational attainment

High school or less 85 73 73 65 35 12 6

Some college 87 73 74 61 37 9 7

College graduate+ 84 71 63 33 27 8 8

Note: Whites and blacks include only non-Hispanics. Hispanics are of any race. Parent’s level of education based on highest level of

education associated with a teen’s parent.

Source: Survey conducted March 7- April 10, 2018.

“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”

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