paper on the most common methods to measure how easily a surface (e.g. of a biomaterial) can slide on another surface.

Need an research paper on the most common methods to measure how easily a surface (e.g. of a biomaterial) can slide on another surface. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism. Adhesion, lubri friction, tribology. Review the most common methods to measure how easily a surface (e.g. of a biomaterial) can slide on another surface. Name Course Subject Instructor Date Adhesion, lubricity, friction, tribology. Review the most common methods to measure how easily a surface (e.g. of a biomaterial) can slide on another surface. Adhesion, lubricity, friction, tribology in a tissue are interrelated to one another. These are the properties of a surface that can determine the wear and tear of a tissue. Tribology is derived from the word “tribos” that is a Greek word and means “to rub against” (Touraj Shirzadian, 2012). Tribology in general, deals with the friction, lubrication and wears between the tissues and biomaterial. Friction is the property of the material that is known to resist the sliding motion of one surface over the other. As the result of friction, wear and tear is produced that are recognized as the damaging characteristics of the friction but friction is not always as damaging as it looks, sometimes it helps the tissue to stay intact to one surface (Hutchings, 1992, 187). Lubricating the two surfaces can reduce the friction and thus limit the wear as the result of friction. Adhesion is the property of the material that makes the two materials to stick together (Bing & Hong, 2001, 297-306). Scientists have developed different methods to reduce the friction by adopting different mechanisms. These mechanisms include the basic lubricating mechanism with some bio-lubrication produced naturally by the biotic creatures (Bing & Hong, 2001, 297-306). These lubricants have higher ratio of fats and some binding or adhesive compounds that act to provide both lubrication to prevent the friction as well as provide the adhesion. This type of adhesion compounds are generally found between the bone joints (Hutchings, 1992, 187). The adhesion material is capable of absorbing the certain amount of stress that mostly is more than the weight of the body. The shape of the sliding part also matters a lot in reducing the sliding friction. Plane surfaces with respect to the other surface have less friction as compared to the surfaces with irregular shapes with crests and troughs. The more the surface has the crests and troughs, the more sliding friction it will produce. The more the surface has hair like elements, the more adhesion it will have. On the other hand, the similar nature of the surface will increase the friction of the surface (Jin & Zhou, 2013, 99). During the surgical implants, it is important to use such tactics that can improve the surface properties and reduce the friction between the bio-mechanical implants. The currently used biomaterials are composed of pure as well as alloy metals, biopolymers, polymers, composites and ceramics (Chan, Komvopoulos, Reddi, Neu and Cesare, 2011, 133). The biopolymers are considerably newer materials as compared to the other material as biomaterials require synthesis of materials and bioengineering (Touraj Shirzadian, 2012). Three basic approaches are followed to synthesize the biomaterials. tissue culture, material building through DNA linking and bio-polymerization. In recent years, scientists have developed methods to link DNA to some noble metals like gold. In the similar manner, alloy metals can also provide the necessary surface properties to reduce the sliding friction between the surfaces (Bing & Hong, 2001, 297-306). Bio-polymerization has produced materials that have properties that can be altered according to the use of the material. Bio metallic materials are pros to the micro corrosion due to the movement of the ions through the bio metallic materials (Chan, Komvopoulos, Reddi, Neu and Cesare, 2011, 133). The rate of micro corrosion can be identified through scanning potential microscope (SPM). The carrion potential of the bio metallic surface is the topographic feature of the surface that can impact the surface properties of the bio metallic material and tend to reduce the sliding motion of the surface. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) is another technique that can present the detailed images of the bio material. A test that is commonly recognized as the wear test can determine the resistivity and durability of the material (Bing & Hong, 2001, 297-306). In this test, different bio materials with different combination of the tribological properties are tested to graphically represent the wear properties of the material. The materials that are in use are also tested by adding modifications and alterations. These experiments are commonly referred as the pin-on-disk experiments (Chan, Komvopoulos, Reddi, Neu and Cesare, 2011, 133). The tests are conducted to evaluate the properties like lubrication, loading, contact geometry, sliding speed. Different methods are also used to modify the materials these methods include plasma technology, bio polymerization, micro fabrication, polymer processing, etc. Spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques are used to identify the structural as well as the chemical properties of the materials that depict the wear products of the different materials (Bing & Hong, 2001, 297-306). The recent development in the technology and the bio medical science and bioengineering provided paths for the generation of new biomaterials with unique surface properties but the recent advancement are still unable to provide solution to neglect the total frictional losses. Scientists believe that new bio polymerization processes can offer better results is refining the products and making the bio materials with better surface properties that can be considered to have low friction as compared to the early biomaterials. Bibliography Bing, S., & Hong, L. 2001. Tribological applications of biomaterials: an overview.&nbsp.SCIENCE IN CHINA SERIES A-MATHEMATICS PHYSICS ASTRONOMY,&nbsp.44, 297-306. Hutchings, I. M. 1992. Tribology: friction and wear of engineering materials: Edward Arnold,(Fax:+ 44 (0) 732 461321) 1992, 352pp, ?19. 95 paperback, ISBN 0 340 56184.&nbsp.Materials & Design,&nbsp.13(3), 187. Jin, Z., & Zhou, M. 2013. Guest editorial: Special issue on bio-tribology.Friction,&nbsp.1(2), 99-99. Chan, S., Komvopoulos, K., Reddi, A., Neu, C. and Cesare, P. 2011. Friction and Wear of Hemiarthroplasty Biomaterials in Reciprocating Sliding Contact With Articular Cartilage. Journal of Tribology, 133 (4), p. 041201. Available from: doi: 10.1115/1.4004760 [Accessed: 20 Dec 2013]. Touraj Shirzadian, M. 2012. The role of biocompatible coatings of biomaterials for creation of direct and appropriate chemical bounding between bioimplant and bone tissue. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 4 (3 Suppl 1), Available at: [Accessed: 20 Dec 2013].

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