23 May Following the guidelines of the United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF), discuss and describe the screening recommendations for the
Following the guidelines of the United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF), discuss and describe the screening recommendations for the following:
- Cervical cancer
- Breast cancer
- Colorectal cancer
- Lung cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Intimate partner violence (IPV).
- Incorporate current practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment and a minimum of 4 current (published within the last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work. Journal articles and books should be referenced according to APA style (the library has a copy of the APA Manual).
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Assignment 1: United States Preventive Service Taskforce (USPSTF)
St. Thomas University
The USPSTF suggests cervical carcinoma screening every three years with cervical cytology alone in females aged twenty-one to twenty-nine years. For females aged thirty to sixty-five years, the guidelines suggest visiting your doctor every three years with cervical cytology alone, possibly every five years with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing alone, or every five years with hrHPV testing blend with cytology (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2020). Worth a note, this is a grade-A suggestion, implying that the USPSTF endorses the service. There is additionally a high conviction that the net increase is significant.
Grade B Recommendation
Concerning breast carcinoma screening, the USPSTF advocates biennial screening mammography for females aged fifty to seventy-four years. Worth a note, this is a grade B suggestion.
Grade C Recommendation
For females aged forty to forty-nine years, the resolution to begin screening should be a personal one. Females who put larger values on the possible gains that the possible harms may opt to begin biennial screening between these ages. For females who are at higher risk for breast carcinoma, a large part of the additions of the mammography results from a biennial screening by the ages of fifty to seventy-four years. Of all of the combined age groups, females aged sixty to sixty-nine years have a higher likelihood of avoiding breast carcinoma demises through mammography screening. While mammography in females aged forty to forty-nine years may lower the chance of breast carcinoma mortality, the number of demises prevented is lower than that in elderly females, and the number of false-positive findings and inessential biopsies is bigger. The balance of harms and gains is likely to ameliorate as females move from their early to late forties.
Additionally, to inessential biopsies and false-positive findings, all females undergoing frequent mammogram screening have a higher chance of diagnosing and managing invasive and noninvasive breast carcinoma that would otherwise not have become hazardous to their health, or even obvious, during their life. Nonetheless, beginning mammograms at a more youthful age and screening routinely may raise the opportunity for resulting overtreatment and overdiagnosis. Females with a child, sibling, or parent with breast carcinoma are at increased risk for the disease and thus may gain more than the average-risk females from starting mammograms in their forties.
Grade I Recommendations
The USPSTF provides that prevailing proof is inadequate to evaluate the gains and risks of “digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)” as a primary screening technique for all women’s breast carcinoma. For females with dense breasts, the USPSTF provides that prevailing proof is inadequate to evaluate the balance of gains and risks of adjunctive breast carcinoma screening utilizing DBT, “magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),” breast ultrasonography, or other techniques in females found to have dense breast on a negative screening mammogram. For females aged seventy-five years and above, the USPSTF provides that prevailing proof is inadequate to evaluate the balance of gains and risks of screening mammography.
The USPSTF advocates screening the disorder for females aged sixty-five years and above and menopausal females younger than sixty-five years who have a high chance of suffering the disorder. Worth note, this is a B guideline, implying that the agency advocates the service.
While still suggesting colorectal carcinoma screening in adults aged fifty to seventy-five years as a grade-A suggestion, the agency currently advocates screening the disorder at the age of forty-five years as a grade B direction. For adults aged seventy-six to eighty-five years, the agency directs that providers selectively provide screening (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2021). Proof shows that the net gains of screening all persons in the age of 76 to 85 years is minimal. To establish whether the service is suitable in personal cases, a patient and provider should examine the patient’s general health and previous screening history.
The task force directs yearly lung carcinoma screening with “low-dose computed tomography (LDCT)” in adults aged fifty to eighty years who have a twenty-pack-year smoking history and present smoke or have stopped within the past fifteen years (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2021). The organization provides that screening be held once a patient has not smoked for about fifteen years or builds up a healthy disorder considerably restricts life expectancy or the capacity or desire to have a curative lung surgery.
The agency directs ovarian carcinoma screening against the screening for ovarian cancer in possibly asymptomatic females as a D direction, and the suggestion applies to only those who are not known to possibly have a high-risk hereditary cancer syndrome (Grossman et al., 2018). The task force provides that the prevailing proof is inadequate to evaluate the balance between the screening gains and risks.
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
The agency directs that all providers screen for the presence of IPV in females of reproductive age and give or refer females who screen positive to support the services. Worth a note, this is a grade B direction. For elderly or vulnerable adults, the task force provides that the prevailing proof is inadequate to evaluate the balance of gains and risks of screening for neglect and abuse as a grade I direction.
Grossman, D. C., Curry, S. J., Owens, D. K., Barry, M. J., Davidson, K. W., Doubeni, C. A., … & Tseng, C. W. (2018). Screening for ovarian cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 319(6), 588-594.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2020). cervical cancer: screening. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/tools-resources/evidence-based-resource/screening-cervical-cancer-us-preventive-services-task#:~:text=For%20women%20aged%2030%20to,combination%20with%20cytology%20(cotesting).
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2021). Colorectal cancer: screening. Retrieved from https://uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/draft-recommendation/colorectal-cancer-screening3#:~:text=In%20the%20current%20draft%20recommendation,years%20(B%20grade%20recommendation).
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2021). Lung cancer: screening. Retrieved from https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/lung-cancer-screening#:~:text=The%20USPSTF%20recommends%20annual%20screening,within%20the%20past%2015%20years.
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