Compose a 1250 words assignment on the rise of fundamentalism. Needs to be plagiarism free! The 19th-century movement started influencing the American churches at the beginning of the 20th century. These liberal leaders encouraged higher biblical criticism of modern Biblical scholarship. 2
In the same way, Higher criticism took birth as a result of the 19th-century rationalism in Europe. The approach gave more attention to the origin and composition of the Biblical text in a secular manner. Based on rationalism, the higher critics claimed that the Bible deserves to be evaluated like any other book and the authorship of various books of the Bible came under attack. This rising criticism posed a threat to the Church as is evident from the fact that Pope Leo XIII expressed his dislike for the secular biblical scholarship.3
One can find the roots of Fundamentalism in Evangelicalism, Dispensationalism, and Princeton theology. All these were efforts to battle the damages caused by liberalism and higher criticism. Evangelicalism proclaimed the authority of Biblical text. Similarly, dispensationalism claimed that God punished humans for failing God’s testing. In addition, it holds that the increasing secularism, liberalism, and immorality are all signs that humans are again failing God’s testing. In the same way, Princeton Theology insisted on the biblical inerrancy. According to this view, the Bible is divinely inspired, and hence, error-free. As the Bible is not a human creation, it cannot be treated like other historical documents. Moreover, Princeton scholars claimed that modernism and liberalism would lead one to hell like non-Christian groups. 4
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The movement received its own name from a set of essays named The Fundamentals, which was aimed at fighting the liberal theology. The Fundamentals insisted on several core principles of Christian faith, including the substitutionary atonement of Christ, bodily resurrection and physical return of .Jesus, Virgin Birth of Christ, the literal nature of the Biblical accounts including Creation, and most importantly the inerrancy of Bible.