Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on the concept of confucianism. Confucius believed that inner moral power was birthed by Heaven (tian 天), in the individual, and it was through this inner moral power that Heaven gave its decree and responded to. To Mozi, the ancestors were not merely ghosts but universal agents that had been sent by Heaven to punish evil or to reward good. These accounts are both important since Confucius stresses the importance of inward piety as being the determinant of outward action (and thereby opposing hypocrisy) while Mozi emphasizes the fact that bad or good behavior is punishable or rewarded, respectively.
In the Analects, Confucius deems himself as a transmitter who did not invent. He sees himself as the conduit through which religious values and discussions of elements of the afterlife and concepts of Heaven and spiritual matters would be maintained. and not the innovator of these values. Both modern history and traditional Chinese accounts present Confucius’ knowledge as influential and wide. The wideness of this knowledge is underscored by the fact that ancient China stressed the four cardinal virtues Chih, li, Jen, and Yi. Confucius was not only knowledgeable but had maintained these virtues. With all the expansive wealth of knowledge, Confucius remains meek enough to state that he is not the innovator, but the transmitter (Roberts, 56).
Confucius’ ideal world is one that is inward-reaching and looking. This is well underscored by the fact that he makes statements such as a great army’s commander may be carried off, but the will of the common man, not. the inferior man is full of distress and oft-worried while the superior man, calm and at ease. and the inferior man makes a demand on himself, and the superior man, of himself. Mozi’s moral teachings were proto-legalist: his heaven-delegated gods could neither be summoned nor were their rewards or punishment escapable. These gods were not personal, but public. .  .
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